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Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Samir Okasha

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the long-standing controversy in evolutionary ... More


Natural Selection in the Abstract

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter studies the logic of evolution by natural selection and the origin of the levels of selection question. The abstract nature of the core Darwinian principles, and thus their potential ... More


The Price Equation

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers a general description of natural selection: the Price equation. Developed by George Price in the late 1960s, the Price equation can be applied to the change of any quantity ... More


Causality and Multi‐Level Selection

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter analyzes the causal dimension to multi-level selection theory. Particular attention is paid to the idea that direct selection at one hierarchical level may generate, as a side effect, a ... More


Selection at Multiple Levels: Concepts and Methods

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops an abstract framework for thinking about selection acting at multiple hierarchical levels. The nature of hierarchical organization is analyzed, in particular the idea that ... More


Inclusive Fitness and Hamilton’s Rule

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines how the logic of inclusive fitness theory can be mathematically formalized using the Price equation, and how that formalization can be used to derive Hamilton's rule in its ... More


Nonadditive Interactions and Hamilton’s Rule

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines what happens in nonadditive interactions when such interactions take place between relatives, and how Hamilton's rule can be extended in two different ways to accommodate such ... More


The Theory of Multilevel Selection

Charles Goodnight

in The Theory of Evolution: Principles, Concepts, and Assumptions

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226671024
eISBN:
9780226671338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226671338.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores the modeling of multilevel selection (MLS) – and the related concepts of group selection and kin selection – using variance partitioning methods, using the Price equation to ... More


Selection among Groups

Richard Mcelreath and Robert Boyd

in Mathematical Models of Social Evolution: A Guide for the Perplexed

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226558264
eISBN:
9780226558288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226558288.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

In his book Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior, ornithologist V. C. Wynne-Edwards argued that many enigmatic bird behaviors functioned to prevent over-population. The book generated a ... More


Social Games

Daniel Friedman, Barry Sinervo, Daniel Friedman, and Barry Sinervo

in Evolutionary Games in Natural, Social, and Virtual Worlds

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199981151
eISBN:
9780190466657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199981151.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

The ways in which social structures can modulate strategic interaction are explored in this chapter. It covers Bergstrom’s model of assortative matching and Hadamard products of payoff matrices and ... More


Programmed Cell Death and the Levels of Selection

Pierre M. Durand

in The Evolutionary Origins of Life and Death

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226747620
eISBN:
9780226747934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226747934.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

At the heart of the debate concerning PCD as an adaptation lies the levels of selection question. PCD can only be selected for if something other than the dying cell is the target of selection. This ... More


Understanding behavioural responses and their consequences

Andrés López-Sepulcre and Hanna Kokko

in Behavioural Responses to a Changing World: Mechanisms and Consequences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199602568
eISBN:
9780191810121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199602568.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter presents the conceptual framework necessary to understand how changes in behaviour occur at the population level and mentions the tools used in measuring the said changes. It outlines ... More


Evolutionary models of mutualism

Erol Akçay

in Mutualism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780199675654
eISBN:
9780191809422
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199675654.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Life as we know it would not exist without the myriad ways different species cooperate and provide benefits to each other. Yet, basic evolutionary theory also suggests that mutualisms should be prone ... More


Hamilton’s Rule as an Organizing Framework

Jonathan Birch

in The Philosophy of Social Evolution

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198733058
eISBN:
9780191797491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198733058.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Queller’s version of Hamilton’s rule (HRG), derived from the Price equation, states that the mean breeding value for a social character increases if and only if rb > c, where r is the coefficient of ... More


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