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Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment

Michael A Bishop and J. D. Trout

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195162295
eISBN:
9780199835539
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195162293.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book presents a new approach to epistemology (the theory of human knowledge and reasoning). Its approach aims to liberate epistemology from the scholastic debates of standard analytic ... More


Introduction

Michael A Bishop and J. D. Trout

in Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195162295
eISBN:
9780199835539
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195162293.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This introductory chapter presents an overview of the subsequent chapters in this book which will discuss topics such as epistemological theory, Statistical Prediction Rules, Strategic Reliabilism, ... More


Does fMRI Have A Role in Personalized Health Care for Psychiatric Patients?

Alex Fornito and Edward T. Bullmore

in Integrative Neuroscience and Personalized Medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195393804
eISBN:
9780199863495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393804.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has rapidly emerged as an important tool for understanding the neural correlates of myriad cognitive and emotional processes. By offering a direct window ... More


Authors of the Storm: Meteorologists and the Culture of Prediction

Gary Fine

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226249520
eISBN:
9780226249544
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226249544.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

Whether it is used as an icebreaker in conversation or as the subject of serious inquiry, “the weather” is one of the few subjects that everyone talks about. And though we recognize the faces that ... More


Experienced Wholeness: Integrating Insights from Gestalt Theory, Cognitive Neuroscience, and Predictive Processing

Wanja Wiese

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780262036993
eISBN:
9780262343275
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036993.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The unity of the experienced world and the experienced self have puzzled humanity for centuries. How can we understand this and related types of phenomenal (i.e., experienced) unity? This book ... More


The Unexpected: Narrative Temporality and the Philosophy of Surprise

Mark Currie

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780748676293
eISBN:
9780748684465
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748676293.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This is a study of unexpected events in narrative, fiction and life. It explores theoretical writings on the subject of surprise, and its broader context in the philosophy of time, and demonstrates ... More


Prediction Error Minimization, Mental and Developmental Disorder, and Statistical Theories of Consciousness

Jakob Hohwy

in Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029346
eISBN:
9780262330213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029346.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Jakob Hohwy seeks to recover an approach to consciousness from a general theory of brain function, namely the prediction error minimization theory. The way this theory applies to mental and ... More


Emerging themes

I. G. Simmons

in Global Environmental History: 10,000 BC to AD 2000

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748621583
eISBN:
9780748670765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748621583.003.0006
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

The topics of language and emotion cannot be ignored in their roles in environmental history. Nor can that of religions, whose powers are not everywhere and all the time eclipsed by the worldviews of ... More


Towards Predictivity? Immediacy and Imminence in the Electronic Monitoring of Offenders

Mike Nellis

in The Pre-Crime Society: Crime, Culture and Control in the Ultramodern Age

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2022
ISBN:
9781529205251
eISBN:
9781529205299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781529205251.003.0016
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

The electronic monitoring (EM) of offenders bestowed on community corrections a hitherto unattainable capacity for remote, real-time oversight (“immediacy”) over offenders’ movements and schedules. ... More


Worlds of Color

Mark C. Jerng

in Racial Worldmaking: The Power of Popular Fiction

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780823277759
eISBN:
9780823280544
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823277759.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This chapter describes how the term “world” becomes a category of racial meaning. Tracking the new coining of phrases such as “colored world,” “yellow world,” and “brown world” during and after the ... More


Prediction

Lasana T. Harris

in Invisible Mind: Flexible Social Cognition and Dehumanization

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035965
eISBN:
9780262339049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035965.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The third chapter introduces prediction as a Bayesian process that ensures survival. It then focuses on social prediction—predicting other people’s behavior—exploring consistently low correlations ... More


Predicting evolution in diverse communities

Timothy G. Barraclough

in The Evolutionary Biology of Species

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198749745
eISBN:
9780191814020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198749745.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Following the outline of basic theory and evidence in chapters 7 and 8, this chapter sets the challenge of attempting to predict evolutionary dynamics in realistically diverse communities. Many ... More


Monitoring Agricultural Drought in South Korea

Hi-Ryong Byun and Suk-Young Hong

in Monitoring and Predicting Agricultural Drought: A Global Study

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162349
eISBN:
9780197562109
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162349.003.0041
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

South Korea (hereinafter referred to as Korea) lies in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Until the 1960s, Korea was a typical agrarian country, with agriculture generating roughly ... More


Policing with Big Data: DNA Matching vs Crime Prediction

Tom Sorell

in Big Data and Democracy

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474463522
eISBN:
9781474485012
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474463522.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Sorell focuses on two state (police) uses of big data that have elicited concern: the creation of DNA databases and the use of past data to predict future crimes and criminals. In response to the ... More


Systematicity in the Lexicon: On Having Your Cake and Eating It Too

Jeffrey L. Elman

in The Architecture of Cognition: Rethinking Fodor and Pylyshyn's Systematicity Challenge

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262027236
eISBN:
9780262322461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027236.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Words are, if not exactly semantic ‘atoms’, at least assumed to be core elements of meaning. Their high degree of context dependence poses challenges to classic views of systematicity, however. In ... More


Systematicity and the Need for Encapsulated Representations

Gideon Borensztajn, Willem Zuidema, and William Bechtel

in The Architecture of Cognition: Rethinking Fodor and Pylyshyn's Systematicity Challenge

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262027236
eISBN:
9780262322461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027236.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In this chapter we propose precise operational criteria of systematicity that reveal a connection between the notion of systematicity and causal roles for category membership. We argue that neural ... More


:: A Changing Atmosphere: From Developmental to Operational Numerical Weather Prediction (1952–1955)

Kristine C. Harper

in Weather by the Numbers: The Genesis of Modern Meteorology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083782
eISBN:
9780262274982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083782.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter details the progress toward operational numerical weather prediction. All three weather services—the Navy, the Air Force, and the Weather Bureau—which were members of the Joint ... More


:: A New Atmosphere

Kristine C. Harper

in Weather by the Numbers: The Genesis of Modern Meteorology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083782
eISBN:
9780262274982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083782.003.0009
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

The opening of the new Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit marked the end of the preliminary research period, but it was just the beginning of the worldwide spread of numerical weather ... More


The Shared-Workspace Framework for Dialogue and Other Cooperative Joint Activities

Martin J. Pickering and Simon Garrod

in Human-Like Machine Intelligence

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780198862536
eISBN:
9780191895333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862536.003.0013
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

We present a theory of dialogue as a form of cooperative joint activity. Dialogue is treated as a system involving two interlocutors and a shared workspace that contains their contributions and ... More


Supervised Learning in Game Data Science: Model Validation and Evaluation

Magy Seif El-Nasr, Truong Huy Nguyen Dinh, Alessandro Canossa, and Anders Drachen

in Game Data Science

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
November 2021
ISBN:
9780192897879
eISBN:
9780191919466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192897879.003.0008
Subject:
Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction, Game Studies

This chapter focuses on two specific steps in the machine learning process, called model validation and model evaluation. Specifically, model validation is the step used to tune the hyperparameters ... More


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