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: Visions of Freedom: The Response to Totalitarianism

Noël O’Sullivan

in The British Study of Politics in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197262948
eISBN:
9780191734762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197262948.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

This chapter considers four of the most influential visions that characterized the response to totalitarianism, and in particular the various concepts of limit they provide, since those are the basis ... More


The Rising Tide: Neoliberal Ideas in the Postwar Period

Daniel Stedman Jones

in Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161013
eISBN:
9781400851836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161013.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter talks about how a distinct neoliberal worldview was built on the foundations of the critique of New Deal liberalism and social democracy synthesized in the writings of Ludwig von Mises, ... More


 A Bouquet of Scientific Values

Noretta Koertge

in Scientific Values and Civic Virtues

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195172256
eISBN:
9780199835546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195172256.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter reviews the attempts of sociologists of science such as Parsons and Merton, and philosophers of science such as Kuhn, Lakatos, and Popper, to characterize the norms that guide the ... More


Intrinsicality

George Molnar

in Powers: A Study in Metaphysics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199204175
eISBN:
9780191695537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199204175.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter starts by defining ‘intrinsic properties’. Intrinsic properties are properties that an object retains through all changes of locations. An object's existence does not depend upon another ... More


Propriety and Truth: (2) Facts and Norms

Arthur N. Prior

in Logic and the Basis of Ethics

Published in print:
1963
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198241577
eISBN:
9780191680380
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198241577.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Moral Philosophy

This chapter discusses Hume and whether one can find whether a moral judgment is to be identified with the judgment that an object is evoking in us a feeling of approval or disapproval. The ... More


Popper and Liberalism

Alan Ryan

in The Making of Modern Liberalism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148403
eISBN:
9781400841950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148403.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter examines Karl Popper's commitment to political liberalism and its connection to his account on the rationality of science. It begins with the observation that liberalism must place a ... More


One Way to Read Ourselves

Edward Craig

in The Mind of God and the Works of Man

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198236825
eISBN:
9780191597244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198236824.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines central philosophical themes and doctrines of twentieth century philosophy in the light of the Agency Theory. Craig argues that despite the unpopularity of philosophical visions ... More


Integrating Music: Personal and Global Transformations

Michael Tenzer

in Analytical and Cross-Cultural Studies in World Music

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195384581
eISBN:
9780199918331
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195384581.003.0010
Subject:
Music, Ethnomusicology, World Music

The act of cross-cultural musical comparison itself is fraught and in many ways forbidding due to the bewildering complexity of linking aspects of our inner selves with seemingly untranslatable and ... More


Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Bradley E. Alger

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This book explains and defends the scientific hypothesis. Explanation is needed to counteract the misinformation and misunderstanding about the hypothesis that even scientists have concerning its ... More


The Domain of Testimony

C. A. J. Coady

in Testimony: A Philosophical Study

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235514
eISBN:
9780191597220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235518.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Sets the stage by exhibiting the extent and depth of our normal dependence upon the word of others. It explores the often‐unnoticed ways that this reliance is present in both everyday knowledge and ... More


The Criteria of Logical Probability

Richard Swinburne

in Epistemic Justification

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199243792
eISBN:
9780191598524
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199243794.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The logical probability of a proposition on another proposition is the true measure of how probable the latter makes the former. The central case of this concerns how likely some evidence makes some ... More


Realism in Methodology

Ilkka Niiniluoto

in Critical Scientific Realism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251612
eISBN:
9780191598098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251614.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Methodological realism accepts the axiological view that truth is one of the essential aims of science. Following Popper and Levi, truthlikeness as the aim of science, combines the goals of truth and ... More


Social Constructivism

Ilkka Niiniluoto

in Critical Scientific Realism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251612
eISBN:
9780191598098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251614.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Philosophers of science should take seriously the fact, emphasized already by Peirce and Popper, that scientific knowledge is a product of the scientific community. The ontological and ... More


Probabilism

Colin Howson

in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250371
eISBN:
9780191597749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250371.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Considers whether probability theory offers a way round Hume's argument, as has sometimes been contended. There are theorems of formal probability theory that appear to show that suitable evidence ... More


Why Climate-Change Skeptics Are Wrong

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794638
eISBN:
9780199919277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794638.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 1 begins by stressing the severity of climate change (CC) and showing how, contrary to popular belief, atomic energy is not a viable solution to ... More


The Spiritual Quest: Transcendence in Myth, Religion, and Science

Robert Torrance

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520081321
eISBN:
9780520920163
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520081321.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This study argues that the spiritual quest is rooted in our biological, psychological, linguistic, and social nature. The quest is not, as most have believed, a rare mystical experience, but a ... More


The Metaphysical Realities of the Unphysical Sciences: Or Why Vertical Integration Seems Unrealistic to Ontological Pluralists 1

Richard A. Shweder

in Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794393
eISBN:
9780199919338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794393.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

Reality testing is unavoidably grounded on metaphysical assumptions. Among reflective reality testers, a rather unconciliatory clash of metaphysical traditions has been going on for a very long time; ... More


Appendix: The Philosophers’ Atom

Helge Kragh

in Niels Bohr and the Quantum Atom: The Bohr Model of Atomic Structure 1913–1925

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199654987
eISBN:
9780191741692
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654987.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This appendix offers a brief outline of how philosophers of science since the 1960s have thought about the Bohr atomic theory. One group of problems that has attracted philosophical interest relates ... More


The Reality of Transcendence

Robert M. Torrance

in The Spiritual Quest: Transcendence in Myth, Religion, and Science

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520081321
eISBN:
9780520920163
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520081321.003.0016
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter argues that one should locate the reality of visions in an autonomous world of cultural or psychic forms rather than in a continually changing relation between the vision and the ... More


The world within

Peter Gärdenfors

in How Homo Became Sapiens: On the evolution of thinking

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528517
eISBN:
9780191689543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528517.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Trial-and-error is a time-consuming and sometimes dangerous process which Skinnerian beings use to know something. However, if an animal can represent the world in an inner world, it can more or less ... More


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