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The Invention of French Newtonianism: Maupertuis and Voltaire

in The Newton Wars and the Beginning of the French Enlightenment

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226749457
eISBN:
9780226749471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226749471.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis announced his Newtonianism from the highest levels of the French scientific establishment. Voltaire, by contrast, proclaimed his from within the public space of the ... More


Leibnizianism and the Solidification of the French Enlightenment

in The Newton Wars and the Beginning of the French Enlightenment

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226749457
eISBN:
9780226749471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226749471.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

By 1740, the Newton wars in France were in full swing. Voltaire was at the center of the struggle, and one theater of combat was the campaign, waged by him and the Marquise du Châtelet, to respond to ... More


The Evolution and Genius of Language: Debates in the Berlin Academy

Avi Lifschitz

in Language and Enlightenment: The Berlin Debates of the Eighteenth Century

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199661664
eISBN:
9780191751653
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661664.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Ideas

After an overview of the history of the Berlin Academy since its foundation in 1700, this chapter outlines the main questions concerning language that were debated in Berlin of the 1750s. Foremost ... More


Natural Philosophy and the Republic of Letters

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Three developments are explored in this chapter. The first is the attempt by the French Crown to act as absolute arbiter and guardian of standards by means of the institution of various Académies. ... More


A French Culture War: The Battle over Newtonianism

in The Newton Wars and the Beginning of the French Enlightenment

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226749457
eISBN:
9780226749471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226749471.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

By 1738, all the key theaters of the Newton wars had opened and were hot with conflict. Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis' Discourse on the Different Figures of the Planets and the discussions of ... More


French Vital Materialism

John H. Zammito

in The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226520797
eISBN:
9780226520827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226520827.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The stimulus of French vital materialism was decisive in provoking key developments in German life-science. The paradigm shift associated with the ideas of Buffon, Maupertuis, Diderot and La Mettrie ... More


Not Dead Yet: Teleology and the “Scientific Revolution”Jeffrey K. McDonough

Jeffrey K. McDonough

in Teleology: A History

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190845711
eISBN:
9780190845742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190845711.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

It is often maintained that teleology was undermined in the early modern era by the scientific revolution. Hoping to correct this misperception, this essay looks at three areas in which teleology was ... More


Introduction: Provincializing Newton, or Building in the Ruins of a Grand Narrative of Modernity1

in The Newton Wars and the Beginning of the French Enlightenment

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226749457
eISBN:
9780226749471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226749471.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In 1687, the year Isaac Newton's Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica appeared, few Frenchmen even knew who the author was and even fewer actually read the book. Yet a century later he and ... More


Making Life Science Newtonian: Albrecht von Haller’s Self-Fashioning as Natural Scientist

John H. Zammito

in The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226520797
eISBN:
9780226520827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226520827.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Albrecht von Haller became the most important German life-scientist of the eighteenth century. Tracing his intellectual self-fashioning therefore provides crucial insight into the gestation of ... More


The Principle of Least Action: From Teleology to Causality

Yemima Ben-Menahem

in Causation in Science

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780691174938
eISBN:
9781400889297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174938.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the place of the “least action” principle in the causal family and its role in in modern science's transition from teleology to causality. It first provides an overview of the ... More


Introduction: Jeffrey K. McDonough

Jeffrey K. McDonough

in Teleology: A History

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190845711
eISBN:
9780190845742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190845711.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The core idea of teleology is intuitive enough: some things happen, or exist, for the sake of other things. Cats have claws for the sake of grasping their prey. Birds have wings for the sake of ... More


Teleology: A History

Jeffrey K. McDonough

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190845711
eISBN:
9780190845742
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190845711.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Teleology is the belief that some things happen, or exist, for the sake of other things. It is the belief that, for example, eyes are for seeing and gills are for breathing. It is the belief that ... More


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