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The Use of Animals in Research

Adil E. Shamoo and David B. Resnik

in Responsible Conduct of Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195368246
eISBN:
9780199867615
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368246.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses the use of animals in research. It provides a brief history of animal research and examines the ethical arguments for and against animal experimentation. The chapter discusses ... More


Peter Singer’s Ethical Theory

F. M. Kamm

in Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195189698
eISBN:
9780199851096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189698.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines the views of consequentialists as well as of nonconsequentialists whose perspectives differ from those of this book. It considers both the kind of consequentialism to which ... More


Responsibilities to the World's Poor

David Miller

in National Responsibility and Global Justice

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235056
eISBN:
9780191715792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235056.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

This chapter addresses the questions: what responsibilities do we have towards the global poor? What must we do for them as a matter of justice? It considers the arguments of Peter Singer and Thomas ... More


Animal Rights: Legal, Philosophical, and Pragmatic Perspectives

Richard A. Posner

in Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195305104
eISBN:
9780199850556
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305104.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter analyses the animal rights issue from legal, philosophical, and pragmatic perspectives. It argues that the best approach to the issue is a human-centric one that appeals to our ... More


Poverty Is No Pond: Challenges for the Affluent

Leif Wenar

in Giving Well: The Ethics of Philanthropy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199739073
eISBN:
9780199855872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739073.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter begins with the question of an individual donor: How will each dollar I can give to aid, or each hour I can devote to campaigning for aid, affect the long‐term well‐being of people in ... More


Obligations of Justice and Beneficence to Aid the Severely Poor

Elizabeth Ashford

in Giving Well: The Ethics of Philanthropy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199739073
eISBN:
9780199855872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739073.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter takes a close look at Peter Singer's argument that we have individual obligations to help those suffering from chronic severe poverty. The chapter compares Singer's drowning child ... More


Kindness and Its Limits

Richard W. Miller

in Globalizing Justice: The Ethics of Poverty and Power

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199581986
eISBN:
9780191723247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581986.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter confronts Peter Singer's enormously influential argument for giving up all luxuries and frills to aid the global poor, an argument based on the appealing principle that one ought to be ... More


Eating Meat and Eating People

Cora Diamond

in Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195305104
eISBN:
9780199850556
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305104.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter presents commentaries on Peter Singer's approach to animal rights. It contends that Singer's attack on ‘speciesism’ mischaracterises the moral issues at stake and contends that if people ... More


Replaceability, Population, and Marginal Cases

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter surveys what Peter Singer has said about the “replaceability” of non-persons, emphasizing that there are problems with each of several different accounts he has offered and how these ... More


Harey Animals

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This brief concluding chapter compares and contrasts the Harean perspective on animal ethics developed in this book with the views of Peter Singer, who wrote his dissertation with Hare. Singer’s ... More


Sentience and the Utilitarian Calculus

Mary Anne Warren

in Moral Status: Obligations to Persons and Other Living Things

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198250401
eISBN:
9780191681295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250401.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines the sentience criterion, which has been defended by such utilitarian theorists as Jeremy Bentham and Peter Singer. It argues that a being's capacity to experience pleasure and ... More


Discrimination, Partial Concern, and Arbitrariness

Gerald Lang

in Luck, Value, and Commitment: Themes From the Ethics of Bernard Williams

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199599325
eISBN:
9780191741500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199599325.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Drawing on some of Bernard Williams's work, especially his essays ‘The Idea of Equality’ and ‘The Human Prejudice’, this chapter argues that ‘speciesism’ is very unlike racism or sexism, and that ... More


Exclusion and the Concept of Speciesism

Paul Waldau

in The Specter of Speciesism: Buddhist and Christian Views of Animals

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145717
eISBN:
9780199834792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145712.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

Focuses on the origin, history, and conceptual structure of “speciesism”. The central question asked is whether the notion of speciesism, under which inclusion of all humans within the purview of ... More


Illusions of Innocence: An Introduction

Peter Unger

in Living High and Letting Die: Our Illusion of Innocence

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108590
eISBN:
9780199868261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108590.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Given the facility with which wealthy Western nations can reduce child mortality rates in developing countries, we should reject the view that it is not wrong to do nothing to lessen distant ... More


The Philosophers

Morrison Adrian R.

in An Odyssey with Animals: A Veterinarian's Reflections on the Animal Rights & Welfare Debate

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195374445
eISBN:
9780199847938
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374445.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores the limitations that a few philosophers would place on the human use of animals, and how these restrictions have formed the foundation of the modern animal rights and liberation ... More


Introduction

F. M. Kamm

in Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195189698
eISBN:
9780199851096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189698.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This book is about nonconsequentialist ethical theory and some alternatives to it, either substantive or methodological. It explores nonconsequentialism and the Trolley Problem as well as particular ... More


Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm

F. M. Kamm

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195189698
eISBN:
9780199851096
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189698.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The author of this book is an ethical theorist working in philosophy today. She is known for her brand of analysis, largely in defense of a nonconsequentialist perspective—the view that some actions ... More


Aggregation, Allocating Scarce Resources, and Discrimination against the Disabled

F. M. Kamm

in Bioethical Prescriptions: To Create, End, Choose, and Improve Lives

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199971985
eISBN:
9780199346141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199971985.003.0021
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter begins by reviewing previous claims that distinguish between the moral significance of intrapersonal and interpersonal aggregation of life years, need, and quality of life, for the ... More


The Moral Considerability of Animals

Alexander Gillespie

in International Environmental Law, Policy, and Ethics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198298724
eISBN:
9780191685514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198298724.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter discusses the contemporary basis for the moral respect for animals. It analyses philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Peter Singer's thoughts on the issue and suggests that the central point ... More


Creation and Relation

Janet Martin Soskice

in The Kindness of God: Metaphor, Gender, and Religious Language

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269502
eISBN:
9780191683657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269502.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Religion and Literature

This chapter discusses the theologies of creation and the relation of human beings to God. It first examines the topics of Genesis and cites. It considers that the concerns of Genesis are different ... More


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