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“A Chaos of Iniquity and Discord” Slave and Free Women of Color in the Spanish Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola

Virginia Meacham Gould

in The Devil's Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195112436
eISBN:
9780199854271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195112436.003.0016
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

This chapter discusses that racial mixing frequently did not always lead to freedom. Some women and their children did effect their freedom from their liaisons with white men. The census schedules ... More


Defining Pensacola and Fort Walton Cultures in the Western Panhandle

Misha Klein

in Late Prehistoric Florida: Archaeology at the Edge of the Mississippian World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780813040141
eISBN:
9780813043821
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813040141.003.0011
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter describes the Pensacola region and addresses the mixture of Fort Walton and Pensacola ceramics from the Apalachicola River westward. Located in the far western panhandle, Pensacola is ... More


Patterns of Protest in Escambia County

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0002
Subject:
History, African-American History

The economic, demographic, political, and employment conditions that existed in Northwest Florida from Reconstruction through the 1950s provided the foundation for a unique local civil rights ... More


The Movement Evolves

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0003
Subject:
History, African-American History

The 1964 transfer of Reverend W. C. Dobbins to an Alabama church changed the nature and the focus of the continuing black freedom struggle. Reverend H. K. Matthews asserted himself as the leading ... More


Cultural Imagery, School Integration, and the Lost Cause

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

As the 1970s began, the Escambia County SCLC and Pensacola NAACP worked together against what blacks considered the most blatant reminder of white supremacy that survived the previous decade’s civil ... More


Opposition Familiar and Unanticipated

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

As the felony trials of B. J. Brooks and H. K. Matthews approached, the Escambia County freedom struggle encountered obstacles from organizations both familiar and unanticipated. Sheriff Royal ... More


The Memoir of Lieutenant Dumont, 1715–1747: A Sojourner in the French Atlantic

Gordon M. Sayre and Carla Zecher (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807837221
eISBN:
9781469608662
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9781469608655_Sayre
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

In 1719, Jean-François-Benjamin Dumont de Montigny, son of a Paris lawyer, set sail for Louisiana with a commission as a lieutenant after a year in Quebec. During his peregrinations over the next ... More


Drinkin’ and Carryin’ On in Search of Community

Jerry T. Watkins III

in Queering the Redneck Riviera: Sexuality and the Rise of Florida Tourism

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780813056913
eISBN:
9780813053684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813056913.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Before market forces created recognizable sites of gay and lesbian community, some queer Floridians leveraged their race and class privileges to create or gain access to spaces in order to find ... More


The Old Spaniard: Introduction

Roger C. Smith (ed.)

in Florida's Lost Galleon: The Emanuel Point Shipwreck

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780813056760
eISBN:
9780813053523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813056760.003.0001
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

The chapter introduces the reader to the newly discovered shipwreck in Pensacola Bay, Florida, and sets the scene for the unfolding story of an early, but unsuccessful, Spanish attempt at the ... More


Marine ArchaeologyComes to Pensacola: Archaeological Background

Roger C. Smith (ed.)

in Florida's Lost Galleon: The Emanuel Point Shipwreck

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780813056760
eISBN:
9780813053523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813056760.003.0002
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

This chapter relates how a partnership between public, private, and academic entities was formed to begin a maritime survey of Pensacola Bay. Public awareness and sponsorship for the survey grew as ... More


Florida’s Forgotten Colony: Historical Background

John E. Worth (ed.)

in Florida's Lost Galleon: The Emanuel Point Shipwreck

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780813056760
eISBN:
9780813053523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813056760.003.0003
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

This chapter tells the story of the ill-fated colonization attempt by Tristán de Luna to settle La Florida on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts for the Kingdom of Spain. Based on archival documentation, ... More


Pensacola’s Public Participation: Outreach and Engagement

Della A. Scott-Ireton (ed.)

in Florida's Lost Galleon: The Emanuel Point Shipwreck

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780813056760
eISBN:
9780813053523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813056760.003.0007
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

The Emanuel Point Shipwreck became a household topic of discussion in Pensacola and surrounding communities due to a public-oriented project that welcomed volunteers, student interns, and visiting ... More


What We Learned: Conclusions

John R. Bratten, Joseph Cozzi, Della A. Scott-Ireton, Roger C. Smith, James D. Spirek, and John E. Worth

in Florida's Lost Galleon: The Emanuel Point Shipwreck

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780813056760
eISBN:
9780813053523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813056760.003.0008
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

Based on field, laboratory, and archival research, discoveries made at the shipwreck systematically told their stories, allowing the wrecked ship and its remains to be closely dated and identified as ... More


Introduction Old Paths, New Paths

Angela Pulley Hudson

in Creek Paths and Federal Roads: Indians, Settlers, and Slaves and the Making of the American South

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807833933
eISBN:
9781469604008
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807898277_hudson.4
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This book begins with a discussion of the new north–south trading route between Upper Creek towns on the Tallapoosa River and the port of Pensacola. The Creeks had long pursued a policy of neutrality ... More


The British Occupation of Pensacola

Nathaniel Millett

in The Maroons of Prospect Bluff and Their Quest for Freedom in the Atlantic World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780813044545
eISBN:
9780813046426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813044545.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter examines the British occupation of Pensacola, the capital of Spanish West Florida, between August and October 1814. During this period, Edward Nicolls and the British took complete ... More


From Spanish Colony to Statehood and Secession, 1820–1859

Doris Weatherford

in They Dared to Dream: Florida Women Who Shaped History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780813060606
eISBN:
9780813050997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813060606.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter describes Florida during the period 1820–1859. On February 22, 1819, Spain peacefully ceded Florida to the United States. All was not entirely calm for the Seminoles in the 1820s though ... More


Who Shall We Incarcerate?

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

In December 1974, a county deputy named Doug Raines shot a black motorist named Wendel Blackwell in the head from a three-foot distance, killing him instantly. The incident represented the ... More


The State of Florida v. B. J. Brooks and H. K. Matthews

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0008
Subject:
History, African-American History

The felony extortion trial of B. J. Brooks and H. K. Matthews began on June 9, 1975. A number of county deputies, including Sheriff Royal Untreiner and Sgt. Jim Edson, testified against the two ... More


Clouds of Interracial Revolution

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0009
Subject:
History, African-American History

In 1976, violence resumed at Escambia High School over the continued presence of its Confederate imagery. Student rioting captured national attention and ensured that city and county officials could ... More


The Consequences of Powerlessness

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0010
Subject:
History, African-American History

The legacy of the 1970s Northwest Florida black freedom struggle influenced area race relations into a new decade. Tensions within and between local civil rights groups, as well as local and national ... More


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