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Ancestral sequence reconstruction as a tool to understand natural history and guide synthetic biology: realizing and extending the vision of Zuckerkandl and Pauling

Eric A. Gaucher

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The perspective on natural history and medicine by Emile Zuckerkandl combined with the chemical expertise of Linus Pauling generated many novel ideas concerning molecular evolution. These included ... More


Light is a Messenger: The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

Graeme K. Hunter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529217
eISBN:
9780191712937
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529217.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book is a biography of William Lawrence Bragg, who was only twenty-five when he won the 1915 Nobel Prize in physics — the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Prize. It describes how Bragg ... More


Ice Ih

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Ice Ih is the normal form of ice obtained by freezing water. This chapter describes its basic physical properties (melting point, density, and vapour pressure), together with ways of preparing single ... More


Historical introduction

I. David Brown

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry: The Bond Valence Model

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199298815
eISBN:
9780191708879
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298815.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This introductory chapter provides a brief historical description of the ways in which inorganic structure has been described, and sets the context for the chapters that follow. The most relevant are ... More


Architects of Structural Biology: Bragg, Perutz, Kendrew, Hodgkin

John Meurig Thomas

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198854500
eISBN:
9780191888793
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198854500.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Designed for the non-specialist, the explanations and illustrations used here describe the work, personalities, collaborations, and idiosyncrasies of four of the most distinguished Nobel Laureates of ... More


Albemarle Street: Portraits, Personalities and Presentations at The Royal Institution

John Meurig Thomas

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2022
ISBN:
9780192898005
eISBN:
9780191924453
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192898005.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

The Royal Institution of Great Britain is renowned the world over, first, because if is a premier arena for the advancement of new scientific and technological knowledge; and second because it ... More


Theory of Itinerant Electron Magnetism, 2nd Edition

Jürgen Kübler

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780192895639
eISBN:
9780191915833
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895639.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The book, in the broadest sense, is an application of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics to the field of magnetism. Under certain well-described conditions, an immensely large number of ... More


A Separation Man No More

Matthew Shindell

in The Life and Science of Harold C. Urey

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226662084
eISBN:
9780226662114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226662114.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

After World War II, Harold C. Urey first attempted to work toward the control of atomic weapons. He joined Albert Einstein and Linus Pauling in founding the Federation of Atomic Scientists and the ... More


Crossing Fields: Chemical Bonds to Biological Mutants

Frederic Lawrence Holmes

in Meselson, Stahl, and the Replication of DNA: A History of "The Most Beautiful Experiment in Biology"

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300085402
eISBN:
9780300129663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300085402.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses Meselson's view that, in order to approach the design of the replication experiment of which he dreamed, he must first understand in detail the structure and chemistry of the ... More


Quantum Chemistry qua Chemistry: Rules and More Rules

Kostas Gavroglu and Ana Simões

in Neither Physics nor Chemistry: A History of Quantum Chemistry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016186
eISBN:
9780262298759
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016186.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

After Walter Heitler and Fritz London wrote their papers as well as tFriedrich Hund, a new approach emerged that was almost universally accepted in the field of chemistry. The leading figures in this ... More


Early Applications of X‐Ray Crystallography

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The early applications of X-ray crystallography in different fields of science in the period up to 1913 are described. Chemistry: the first crystal structure determinations shed a new light on the ... More


The Birth and Initial Exploitation of X-ray Diffraction

John Meurig Thomas

in Architects of Structural Biology: Bragg, Perutz, Kendrew, Hodgkin

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198854500
eISBN:
9780191888793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198854500.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

A non-mathematical account of the discovery of X-ray diffraction by von Laue and its use as a new kind of high-resolution microscopy by W. L. Bragg is given. There follows a simple explanation of how ... More


A Dispute Between the Cavendish and Caltech: The Emergence and Ubiquity of the α‎-Helix

John Meurig Thomas

in Architects of Structural Biology: Bragg, Perutz, Kendrew, Hodgkin

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198854500
eISBN:
9780191888793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198854500.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Bragg, Kendrew, and Perutz at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, published in 1950 proposals for the nature of the folding of the constituents (the amino acid residues) of proteins such as keratin, ... More


I Died for Beauty: A Biography of Dorothy Wrinch

Marjorie Senechal

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199732593
eISBN:
9780190254353
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199732593.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Dorothy Wrinch, a complicated and ultimately tragic figure, is remembered today for her much publicized feud with Linus Pauling over the shape of proteins, known as “the cyclol controversy.” Pauling ... More


“Linus and Dorothy”: The Opera, with Talkback

Marjorie Senechal

in I Died for Beauty: A Biography of Dorothy Wrinch

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199732593
eISBN:
9780190254353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199732593.003.0016
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter imagines Dorothy Wrinch's epic battle with Linus Pauling as an opera with four acts. It focuses on the imagined Act II, when in 1938, Linus, an ambitious, young American chemist, ... More


Electronic Structure and Magnetism

Jürgen Kübler

in Theory of Itinerant Electron Magnetism, 2nd Edition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780192895639
eISBN:
9780191915833
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895639.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The fundamental magnetic properties of iron, cobalt, and nickel are the center of interest, beginning with historical attempts and Stoner’s theory. Stoner susceptibility is derived in a modern way by ... More


Support by illustrators and image technicians

Hentschel Klaus

in Visual Cultures in Science and Technology: A Comparative History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198717874
eISBN:
9780191787546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717874.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter looks beyond the scientist or technologist inventing or utilizing visual representations in his or her practice. Behind or around this figure, other often little-known people repeatedly ... More


Historical Introduction

I. David Brown

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198742951
eISBN:
9780191802935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742951.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The concept of a chemical bond originated in the mid-nineteenth century (Sections 1.1 and 1.2), but developed further in the twentieth century with the discovery of X-ray diffraction (Sections 1.3 to ... More


Magnetism in Metals and Alloys

Kannan M. Krishnan

in Fundamentals and Applications of Magnetic Materials

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780199570447
eISBN:
9780191813504
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570447.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Delocalized conduction electrons described by the free electron model can explain the magnetic properties of metals. The spin-split density of states function describes the distribution of available ... More


Solvated Ions in Water

Bruce C. Bunker and William H. Casey

in The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199384259
eISBN:
9780197562987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199384259.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

In most undergraduate chemistry classes, students are taught to consider reactions in which cations and anions dissolved in water are depicted as isolated ions. For example, the magnesium ion is ... More


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