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## The development of quantum electrodynamics until 1947: the historical background of Julian Schwinger’s work on QED

*JAGDISH MEHRA and KIMBALL A. MILTON*

### in Climbing the Mountain: The Scientific Biography of Julian Schwinger

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198527459
- eISBN:
- 9780191709593
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527459.003.0006
- Subject:
- Physics, History of Physics

Prior to 1947, Julian Schwinger had not worked in quantum electrodynamics (QED), apart from his first unpublished paper ‘On the interaction of several electrons’. Before joining the City College of ... More

## Paul Dirac and the Magic of Large Numbers

*Helge Kragh*

### in Masters of the Universe: Conversations with Cosmologists of the Past

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- March 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780198722892
- eISBN:
- 9780191789564
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722892.003.0012
- Subject:
- Physics, History of Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

In the 1930s Paul Dirac was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his fundamental contributions to quantum mechanics, and he also proposed a new cosmological theory based on the hypothesis that the ... More

## Forming the Canon

*Dean Rickles*

### in Covered with Deep Mist: The Development of Quantum Gravity (1916-1956)

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- April 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780199602957
- eISBN:
- 9780191844393
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780199602957.003.0006
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter charts the early development of the canonical quantum gravity (that is, the quantization of the gravitational field in Hamiltonian form). What we find in this period include: the ... More

##
Dirac’s Derivation of the Relativistic Wave Equation: *Electron Spin and Antimatter*

*Jim Baggott*

### in The Quantum Cookbook: Mathematical Recipes for the Foundations for Quantum Mechanics

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- January 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198827856
- eISBN:
- 9780191866579
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198827856.003.0010
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The problem of electron spin was in some way connected with special relativity. Dirac’s fascination with relativity and his already burgeoning reputation made the search for a fully relativistic form ... More

## Introduction

*Thomas Ryckman*

### in The Reign of Relativity: Philosophy in Physics 1915-1925

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- April 2005
- ISBN:
- 9780195177176
- eISBN:
- 9780199835324
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0195177177.003.0001
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The general theory of relativity (GTR) brought a revolutionary transformation in philosophical as well as physical outlook. The philosopher Mortiz Schick, student of Max Planck, played a pivotal role ... More

## Introductory Considerations

*John von Neumann*

*Nicholas A. Wheeler (ed.)*

### in Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: New Edition

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- September 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691178561
- eISBN:
- 9781400889921
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691178561.003.0002
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents the origins of the transformation theory and related concepts. It shows how, in 1925, a procedure initiated by Werner Heisenberg was developed by himself, Max Born, Pascual ... More

## Dirac, Von Neumann, and the Derivation of the Quantum Formalism: State Vectors in Hilbert Space

*Jim Baggott*

### in The Quantum Cookbook: Mathematical Recipes for the Foundations for Quantum Mechanics

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- January 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198827856
- eISBN:
- 9780191866579
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198827856.003.0011
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The evolution of quantum mechanics through the 1920s was profoundly messy. Some physicists believed that it was necessary to throw out much of the conceptual baggage that early quantum mechanics ... More

## Stephen Hawking: The Scientific Sublime Embodied

*Alan G. Gross*

### in The Scientific Sublime: Popular Science Unravels the Mysteries of the Universe

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780190637774
- eISBN:
- 9780197559727
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780190637774.003.0010
- Subject:
- Education, Teaching of a Specific Subject

Lucy Hawking has had the good fortune of being the daughter of the most famous living physicist; she has had the better fortune of having been a teenager ... More

## Heisenberg’s Derivation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle: The Stability of Matter and the Periodic Table

*Jim Baggott*

### in The Quantum Cookbook: Mathematical Recipes for the Foundations for Quantum Mechanics

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- January 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198827856
- eISBN:
- 9780191866579
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198827856.003.0009
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Despite the success of Schrödinger’s description of the H-atom, it became apparent that the spectrum of the simplest multi-electron atom—helium—could not be so readily explained. And the spectra of ... More

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