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Origin Properties and Individual Essences

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Graeme Forbes has argued that many ordinary persisting things (including people, animals, and plants) can be attributed non-trivial individual essences that include distinctive features of their ... More


Temporal Dynamics in Categorization

Michael Spivey

in The Continuity of Mind

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195170788
eISBN:
9780199786831
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195170788.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter identifies weaknesses in formal logical approaches to categorization by discussing Russell's Paradox with set theory and the Sorites Paradox, and by tracking the continuous temporal ... More


Belief and Conjunction

Simon J. Evnine

in Epistemic Dimensions of Personhood

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199239948
eISBN:
9780191716898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239948.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is argued that it is both rational for persons to believe the conjunctions of their beliefs and that they must do so to a large extent. Arguments against the rationality claim stemming from the ... More


Logical Validity in a Token-Based, Semantically Closed Logic

Gyula Klima

in John Buridan

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195176223
eISBN:
9780199871957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176223.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Church History

This chapter provides a comprehensive survey of Buridan’s conception of logical validity in a semantically closed token-based system, as he conceives of natural languages. The chapter argues first ... More


Identity and the Facts of the Matter

Graeme Forbes

in Cuts and Clouds: Vagueness, its Nature, & its Logic

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199570386
eISBN:
9780191722134
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570386.003.0025
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter draws out some parallels between Chisholm's Paradox and puzzles about identity through time. It focuses on the example of Old Number One, the Bentley racing car in which Wolf ‘Babe’ ... More


NEW CONCEPTS AND METHODS—PRE-BAYESIAN ERA

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0006
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

After James Bernoulli, the main contributors to probability theory and its applications in the 18th century worked either to solve more intricate problems of games of chance (De Moivre), or to build ... More


The Wall

David B. Audretsch

in Entrepreneurial Society

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183504
eISBN:
9780199783885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183504.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Knowledge has emerged as the critical factor to generate economic growth, jobs, and competitiveness in a globalized economy. However, science, research, and human capital do not do the taxpayers much ... More


Comments on Some Critics

Graham Priest

in In Contradiction

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199263301
eISBN:
9780191718823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199263301.003.0021
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter discusses and replies to a number of the more important objections that have been made to dialetheism since the publication of the first edition of the book. The topics covered include ... More


The Easterlin and Other Paradoxes: Why Both Sides of the Debate May Be Correct

Carol Graham, Soumya Chattopadhyay, and Mario Picon

in International Differences in Well-Being

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199732739
eISBN:
9780199776887
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732739.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Research on the economics of happiness has raised a new debate on the relationship between happiness and income. Easterlin’s original work highlighted an apparent paradox: as countries grew ... More


Spectrum Arguments: Objections and Replies

Larry S. Temkin

in Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199759446
eISBN:
9780199932214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199759446.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

Chapters 2 through 5 presented various Spectrum Arguments which revealed an inconsistency between certain standard views regarding how to make trade-offs between different alternatives along a ... More


DEDUCTIVE CONSTRAINTS: PROBLEM CASES, POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

David Christensen

in Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199263257
eISBN:
9780191602603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263256.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Develops an extended version of the Preface Paradox to show how the counter-intuitive binary beliefs mandated by deductive consistency and deductive closure can cascade into massive irrationality. ... More


Judgment as a Guide to Belief

Nicholas Silins

in Introspection and Consciousness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199744794
eISBN:
9780199933396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744794.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The chapter investigates the way in which our conscious judgments can be a guide to our beliefs, a topic discussed by Gareth Evans, Richard Moran, Christopher Peacocke, and Alex Byrne, among others. ... More


On the Nature of Moral Ideals: Part I

Larry S. Temkin

in Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199759446
eISBN:
9780199932214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199759446.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

A fundamentally important question for practical reasoning is how best to understand the goodness of outcomes and the nature of moral ideals: Is the Internal Aspects View correct, is the Essentially ... More


Information, Knowledge, Vision and Theories of the Firm *

Martin Fransman

in Technology, Organization, and Competitiveness: Perspectives on Industrial and Corporate Change

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198290964
eISBN:
9780191596162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198290969.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This paper has the following purposes. The first is to demonstrate that many of the best‐known approaches to the firm in economics have in common a starting‐point that sees the firm as a response to ... More


Leontief's Input‐Output

S. N. Afriat

in Logic of Choice and Economic Theory

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198284611
eISBN:
9780191595844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198284616.003.0019
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This is the second of six chapters on the logic of price, and reviews the characteristics of Leontief's input–output method. The six sections of the chapter are: Quesnay's tableau économique; the ... More


Risk Beliefs and Individual Rationality

W. Kip Viscusi

in Rational Risk Policy: The 1996 Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293637
eISBN:
9780191596995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293631.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Risk beliefs often reflect systematic biases, such as the overestimation of small risks and underestimation of large risks. The prospective reference theory model explains these and other anomalies ... More


Bayesianism in Statistics

Colin Howson

in Bayes's Theorem

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263419
eISBN:
9780191734175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263419.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter discusses Bayesianism in statistics. The first section of the chapter is devoted to the First Bayesian Theory, which is immediately followed by a discussion of significance tests and the ... More


The Stoics on Definitions

Paolo Crivelli

in Definition in Greek Philosophy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199564453
eISBN:
9780191721618
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564453.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Ancient Philosophy

Definitions were very important for the Stoics, even though they hesitated as to where the theory of definition should be located within their system of philosophical disciplines: some (probably ... More


Hempel, Explanation, Metaphysics

Jaegwon Kim

in Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585878
eISBN:
9780191595349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585878.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

“Hempel, Explanation, Metaphysics” argues that if Carl Hempel had been willing to make use of some of the metaphysical concepts that are now regarded as uncontroversial, such as the concept of an ... More


Egalitarianism and Population Change

Gustaf Arrhenius

in Intergenerational Justice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199282951
eISBN:
9780191712319
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282951.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, General

What is the role of equality in the evaluation of populations of different sizes in respect to their goodness? The field of population ethics has been riddled with paradoxes which purport to show ... More


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