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 Parsimony and Ontological Commitment

Amie L. Thomasson

in Ordinary Objects

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195319910
eISBN:
9780199869602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319910.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

If we don't need ordinary objects in our causal explanations, it is often held, Occam's razor enjoins us to eliminate them. This chapter examines these arguments from parsimony, suggesting first that ... More


How to Construct Predictive Models: Simplicity and Nonabsurdity

Rein Taagepera

in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

Predictive models should be as simple as one can get away with, and they must not predict absurdities. They join the parsimony of “Occam's razor” to the “Sherlock Holmes principle”: Show how things ... More


Conclusion

John P. Burgess and Gideon Rosen

in A Subject With No Object: Strategies for Nominalistic Interpretation of Mathematics

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250128
eISBN:
9780191597138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250126.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Turns from exposition to evaluation of nominalist interpretations, first considering the revolutionary claim that the nominalist theories are superior to current mathematically formulated ones. We ... More


But Is It True?

Joseph E. Uscinski and Joseph M. Parent

in American Conspiracy Theories

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199351800
eISBN:
9780190203955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199351800.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Given that most people believe in one conspiracy theory or another, this chapter examines how tethered to truth those beliefs are. It first explains why conspiracy theories are hard to disprove and ... More


Determine the Actual Cause(s)

Arnaud Chevallier

in Strategic Thinking in Complex Problem Solving

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780190463908
eISBN:
9780190627447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190463908.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The fourth chapter, “Determine the actual cause(s),” concludes the diagnostic process by explaining how to converge on the actual root cause(s) of the problem. Readers are first shown how to ... More


The Survivor Problem Continued: Introduction to Bayesian Model Selection

Therese M. Donovan and Ruth M. Mickey

in Bayesian Statistics for Beginners: a step-by-step approach

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198841296
eISBN:
9780191876820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198841296.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

This chapter provides a very brief introduction to Bayesian model selection. The “Survivor Problem” is expanded in this chapter, where the focus is now on comparing two models that predict how long a ... More


Uncertainty and conjunction fallacies

Ash Asudeh and Gianluca Giorgolo

in Enriched Meanings: Natural Language Semantics with Category Theory

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198847854
eISBN:
9780191882470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198847854.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This chapter examines conjunction fallacies. This phenomenon is a topic in the psychology of reasoning and is not strictly linguistic, but it is related to pragmatics. Monads are shown to capture ... More


Modeling Financial Instability

Steve Keen

in The Global Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath: Hidden Factors in the Meltdown

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780199386222
eISBN:
9780199386253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199386222.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Macroeconomics has ignored private debt on the argument that debt is a “pure redistribution” which “should have no significant macro-economic effects” (Bernanke 2000, 24). This is true of the ... More


Don’t Be a Masochist!

Massimiliano Di Ventra

in The Scientific Method: Reflections from a Practitioner

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780198825623
eISBN:
9780191864605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198825623.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter clarifies further the role of a theory and the choice of a theory over another based on its simplicity in describing phenomena.


The Master Argument Against Ontological Borders

Jody Azzouni

in Ontology Without Borders

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780190622558
eISBN:
9780190622589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190622558.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The “master argument” is given: No metaphysical sense can be made of ontological boundaries (ones that support individuation conditions) above and beyond feature changes in the world. Ontological ... More


Putting the Mechanics of Claims in Perspective

Alec D. Walen

in The Mechanics of Claims and Permissible Killing in War

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
April 2019
ISBN:
9780190872045
eISBN:
9780190872076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190872045.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter covers two basic themes. First, it argues that the mechanics of claims is substantively preferable to the infringement model in two ways. First, it considers the main reason to adopt the ... More


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