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Conflict and Cooperation: American–Western European Relations (not) Redefined, 1969–1977

Geir Lundestad

in The United States and Western Europe Since 1945: From "Empire" by Invitation to Transatlantic Drift

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199266685
eISBN:
9780191601057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199266689.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

In the late 1960s, the wider framework for and the basic structure of the North Atlantic alliance was being challenged on virtually all fronts at the same time, causing the need for a reappraisal of ... More


The Two OPEC Recessions (1973–5 and 1979–82)

Christopher Dow

in Major Recessions: Britain and the World 1920-1995

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241231
eISBN:
9780191596179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241236.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The recession of 1973–75 was the first occasion since the war when total output fell absolutely, and it was followed six years later by the recession of 1979–82, when output again showed an absolute ... More


Lessons of the Golden Age: An Overview

Stephen A. Marglin

in The Golden Age of Capitalism: Reinterpreting the Postwar Experience

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198287414
eISBN:
9780191684548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198287414.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter provides an overview of the historical and theoretical arguments of the book. It differentiates causes and triggers. It notes that conventional wisdom dates the end of the ‘golden age’ ... More


Have the Multilaterals Been Greened? Major Trends and Cases

Robert L. Hicks, Bradley C. Parks, J. Timmons Roberts, and Michael J. Tierney

in Greening Aid?: Understanding the Environmental Impact of Development Assistance

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199213948
eISBN:
9780191707476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213948.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter shows how multilateral agencies provided developing countries with more than $75 billion in environmental aid between 1980 and 2000. It presents descriptive statistics on environmental ... More


Domestic Legal Remedies Against OPEC

Cedric Ryngaert

in Challenging Acts of International Organizations Before National Courts

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199595297
eISBN:
9780191595752
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595297.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Public International Law

This chapter addresses the difficulties encountered when trying to apply national anti-trust/competition law to the activities of international organizations. It demonstrates the fundamentally ... More


The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

Giuliano Garavini

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198832836
eISBN:
9780191871306
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198832836.001.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History, World Modern History

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is one of the most recognizable acronyms among international organizations. It is mainly associated with the “oil shock” of 1973 when the ... More


The Inheritance—State Ownership, Monopoly, and Planning

Dieter Helm

in Energy, the State, and the Market: British Energy Policy since 1979

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199270743
eISBN:
9780191718540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199270743.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter begins with a summary of the legacy left by nationalization and the OPEC years. The immediate enthusiasm for public ownership gave way to a struggle to find ways of regulating these ... More


The Failed Cartel

Giuliano Garavini

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198832836
eISBN:
9780191871306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198832836.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History, World Modern History

Chapter 7 describes the rise of non-OPEC oil production, especially in the UK, Norway, and Mexico, and the start of the price-slump at the beginning of the 1980s, also due to increased production ... More


The Pathology of Inaction: The Dilemma of Middle Eastern Oil and the Iranian Hostage Crisis, 1973–1980

Laurence R. Jurdem

in Paving the Way for Reagan: The Influence of Conservative Media on US Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780813175843
eISBN:
9780813175874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813175843.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Throughout the 1970s, Human Events, National Review, and Commentary drew connections to argue that the nation’s dependence on foreign oil continued to grow because of numerous regulations imposed on ... More


Oil, American Diplomacy, and Weak Institutions

Andrew T. Price-Smith

in Oil, Illiberalism, and War: An Analysis of Energy and US Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780262029063
eISBN:
9780262327527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029063.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Price-Smith argues that current international energy governance, particularly its long-standing institutions (e.g., the International Energy Agency), are largely an extension of American power. Even ... More


The End of Cheap Oil?

James M. Griffin

in A Smart Energy Policy: An Economist's Rx for Balancing Cheap, Clean, and Secure Energy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300149852
eISBN:
9780300149869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300149852.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter focuses on whether markets can be trusted to provide cheap energy. Both the organization of the petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) cartel and its predecessor, the Seven Sisters, found ... More


The Food Weapon: Geopolitics in the Middle East

Eckart Woertz

in Oil for Food: The Global Food Crisis and the Middle East

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199659487
eISBN:
9780191749155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659487.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Food trade has been used as a political weapon in the Middle East on various occasions. In the 1960s, the US used the food for peace program (P.L. 480) to influence Egyptian foreign policy. In the ... More


OPEC

Giuliano Garavini

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198832836
eISBN:
9780191871306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198832836.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History, World Modern History

In order to explain the creation of OPEC, Chapter 2 describes the spread of protests in the oil fields as well as the rise of nationalism in the Arab world, together with the radicalization of ... More


Global trends in state resource management

Amanda Slevin

in Gas, Oil and the Irish State: Understanding the Dynamics and Conflicts of Hydrocarbon Management

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781784992743
eISBN:
9781526115355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9781784992743.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

Taking a global perspective, this chapter examines the origins of legal systems to facilitate hydrocarbon exploitation and the growth of the petroleum industry. Identifying four main approaches to ... More


The Supply-Shock Explanation of the Great Stagflation Revisited

Alan S. Blinder and Jeremy B. Rudd

in The Great Inflation: The Rebirth of Modern Central Banking

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226066950
eISBN:
9780226043555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226043555.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Previous studies have concluded that the two OPEC shocks, the two roughly contemporaneous food price shocks, and the removal of wage-price controls in 1973–1974 played key roles in the macroeconomic ... More


Getting the House in Order: The Oil Embargo, Consumption, and the Limits of American Power

Natasha Zaretsky

in No Direction Home: The American Family and the Fear of National Decline, 1968-1980

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780807830949
eISBN:
9781469604428
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807867808_zaretsky.6
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the OPEC oil embargo of 1973–1974, which came as a retaliation against America's support of Israel in the October War, and how the nation's position was compromised during the ... More


The International Context

Jonathon W. Moses and Bjørn Letnes

in Managing Resource Abundance and Wealth: The Norwegian Experience

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780198787174
eISBN:
9780191829260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198787174.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

When Norway discovered its petroleum resources, the world was a very different place, with greater opportunities for domestic management of the economy (including the rise of the United Nations ... More


Learning Geopolitical Pluralism: Toward a New International Oil Regime?

Clement M. Henry

in Environmental Politics in the Middle East

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190916688
eISBN:
9780190942984
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190916688.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Middle Eastern Politics

The Middle East, viewed by many as a geopolitical prize astride three continents, is now sharply contested and fragmented by proxy wars in Libya, Syria, and Yemen reflecting a painful readjustment of ... More


The Changing International Political Economy of Energy

Andreas Goldthau and Nick Sitter

in A Liberal Actor in a Realist World: The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198719595
eISBN:
9780191788673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198719595.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Chapter 2 makes the case for energy in IPE. It introduces the idea that paradigms matter in energy policy, in relation to the fundamental changes in the global political economy pertaining to shifts ... More


The World Food Crisis and the End of the Postwar Food System

Bryan L. McDonald

in Food Power: The Rise and Fall of the Postwar American Food System

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190600686
eISBN:
9780190600716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190600686.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The end of the 1960s brought turbulence in American affairs at home and abroad, and sparked a set of changes that resulted in the first global food crisis since the end of World War II. In the early ... More


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