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The Evolution of Public Sector Pension Plans in the United States

Robert L. Clark, Lee A. Craig, and Neveen Ahmed

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0014
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Municipal governments in the United States began offering retirement plans for their workers in the mid-nineteenth century, and state governments followed in the early twentieth century. As these ... More


Estimating State and Local Government Pension and Retiree Health Care Liabilities

Stephen T. McElhaney

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Liabilities for pension and retiree health-care benefits provided by US state and local governments are causing concerns for taxpayers and for those holding government bonds. Many question whether ... More


Political Opinions, Observations, and Activities

BONNIE S. McDOUGALL

in Love-Letters and Privacy in Modern China: The Intimate Lives of Lu Xun and Xu Guangping

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199256792
eISBN:
9780191698378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199256792.003.0019
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter discusses Lu Xun and Xu Guangping's political beliefs, activities, and observations. Lu Xun's animus against colleagues such as Gu Jiegang appeared to have political overtones. It was ... More


Modern Chinese Letters and Epistolary Fiction

BONNIE S. McDOUGALL

in Love-Letters and Privacy in Modern China: The Intimate Lives of Lu Xun and Xu Guangping

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199256792
eISBN:
9780191698378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199256792.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

The appearance of modern love-letters in China dates back to 1915, with the publication of a manual claiming to offer advice and models for courtship by letters composed in classical Chinese. The ... More


Modelling Multivariate Counts Varying Continuously in Space *

Alexandra M. Schmidt and Marco A. Rodríguez

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0020
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

We discuss models for multivariate counts observed at fixed spatial locations of a region of interest. Our approach is based on a continuous mixture of independent Poisson distributions. The mixing ... More


Developing a Collaborative Approach to e-Learning Design in an Intercultural (Sino-UK) Context

David McConnell, Sheena Banks, and Vic Lally

in e-Learning Initiatives in China: Pedagogy, Policy and Culture

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789622098671
eISBN:
9789882206861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622098671.003.0011
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

This chapter examines the processes of collaboration in the eChina-UK Developing e-Learning for Teachers (DEfT) project. This project involves the collaborative development of an e-learning module by ... More


Collaborating across Boundaries: Managing the Complexities of e-Learning Courseware Production in a Joint International Project

Gary Motteram, Gillian Forrester, Sue Goldrick, and Angela McLachlan

in e-Learning Initiatives in China: Pedagogy, Policy and Culture

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789622098671
eISBN:
9789882206861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622098671.003.0012
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

This chapter examines the management of the complexities of e-learning courseware in the context of the Developing e-Learning for Teachers (DEfT) project, a two-year collaboration between the School ... More


Beckett Beyond the Normal

Seán Kennedy (ed.)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781474460460
eISBN:
9781474490801
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474460460.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, European Literature

This book examines why Beckett’s writing is so queer, so disabled and disabling. Why did Beckett write so soften about mental illness, disability, perversion? Why did he take such an interest in ... More


Out of the Midwest

Michael J Lannoo

in Leopold's Shack and Ricketts's Lab: The Emergence of Environmentalism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520264786
eISBN:
9780520946064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520264786.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Aldo Leopold and Edward F. Ricketts shared a midwestern upbringing. Rand Aldo Leopold was born on January 11, 1887, in Burlington, Iowa, to first cousins Carl and Clara Leopold. Aldo was the eldest ... More


The Union of Wales and England

Bernhard Maier

in The Celts: A History from Earliest Times to the Present

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748616053
eISBN:
9780748672219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748616053.003.0016
Subject:
History, Ancient History / Archaeology

This chapter begins with discussion of political developments such as the Norman conquest and the division of Wales into twelve counties with the right of appropriate representation in the English ... More


Harlem, 1884–1906

William Seraile

in Angels of Mercy: White Women and the History of New York's Colored Orphan Asylum

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780823234196
eISBN:
9780823240838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823234196.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

The first half of 1884 was a busy period in the life of the Colored Orphan Asylum (COA). Despite its early intent to care specifically for orphans, the institution now had more half-orphans and ... More


Alternatives within an Alternative Form: Canadian Wartime Creators Bus Griffiths, Avrom Yanovsky, “Ab Normal,” Tedd Steele, and Jack Tremblay

Ivan Kocmarek (ed.)

in The Canadian Alternative: Cartoonists, Comics, and Graphic Novels

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781496815118
eISBN:
9781496815156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781496815118.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, Comics Studies

This chapter asserts that the whole enterprise of comic book publishing in Canada during the Second World War offered up a form of comic book that was alternative to the established and entrenched ... More


The Making of New Homes

Nina Gren

in Occupied Lives: Maintaining Integrity in a Palestinian Refugee Camp in the West Bank

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9789774166952
eISBN:
9781617976568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:
10.5743/cairo/9789774166952.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

This chapter focuses on alternative practices aimed at upholding the camp inhabitants’ sense of worth and integrity, namely social continuity, as a way to recover from and oppose both present and ... More


“The Instruction Necessary to the Practical Duties of the Profession”: Teacher Education in the West

Charles Dorn

in For the Common Good: A New History of Higher Education in America

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780801452345
eISBN:
9781501712616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801452345.003.0006
Subject:
Education, History of Education

This chapter explores California State Normal School, California's first publicly supported higher-education institution. Dedicated to teacher education, normal schools were initially established in ... More


Designing Modern America: Broadway to Main Street

Christopher Innes

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300108040
eISBN:
9780300129557
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300108040.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

From the 1920s through the 1950s, two individuals, Joseph Urban and Norman Bel Geddes, did more, by far, to create the image of “America” and make it synonymous with modernity than any of their ... More


Nonhydrostatic Stress

Brian Bayly

in Chemical Change in Deforming Materials

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195067644
eISBN:
9780197560211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195067644.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

As in the chapters on chemical potential, it will again be assumed that the reader has thought about the topic before, so that our task is to select rather than to build. The interior of a ... More


To “Do That Which Is Best”: Richmond Colored Normal and the Development of Public Schoolteachers

Hilary Green

in Educational Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter explores the expansion and refinement of the educational relationships forged by black Richmonders through Richmond Colored Normal. These relationships not only facilitated the creation ... More


Response Functions

Karen Neander

in A Mark of the Mental: In Defense of Informational Teleosemantics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262036146
eISBN:
9780262339865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036146.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Supporters of standard teleosemantics argue that informational teleosemantics turns teleosemantics on its head, because functions are effects but a representation’s information relations concern its ... More


In Defence of Politics against Security?

Andrew W. Neal

in Security as Politics: Beyond the State of Exception

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781474450928
eISBN:
9781474465342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474450928.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter begins with the history of security as a form of ‘anti-politics’, from Hobbes to 20th century struggles to tame the ‘rogue elephant’ of the US intelligence services. It discusses the ... More


Securitisation and Politicisation

Andrew W. Neal

in Security as Politics: Beyond the State of Exception

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781474450928
eISBN:
9781474465342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474450928.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter sets out an original conceptual framework for analysing the shift of ‘security’ from discursive and institutional arenas of ‘exceptional politics’ to ‘normal politics’. It argues that ... More


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