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Trajectories in Science

Geoffrey Cantor

in Quakers, Jews, and Science: Religious Responses to Modernity and the Sciences in Britain, 1650-1900

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276684
eISBN:
9780191603389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276684.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter looks at nine different modes of scientific activity pursued by Quakers and Jews. These range from the wealthy amateur — including several Jews who pursued science in an upper-class, ... More


The Riddle

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter begins with a review of the classical (Reid‐Beattie) skeptical interpretation of Hume's Treatise followed by an account of Norman Kemp Smith's influential naturalistic interpretation of ... More


Religious Philosophers and Speculative Atheists

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Hume's early critics strongly associated the skepticism of the Treatise with “atheistic” or anti‐Christian intentions. Moreover, they took Clarke's philosophy to be a particularly obvious and ... More


The Never to Be Forgotten Hutcheson

Ian Simpson Ross

in The Life of Adam Smith

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198288213
eISBN:
9780191596827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198288212.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Smith's university studies at Glasgow are described: in Greek, introducing him to the Stoic philosopher Epictetus; Aristotelian logic and metaphysics, including Locke's empiricism; and Euclidian ... More


Natural Philosophy and the Republic of Letters

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Three developments are explored in this chapter. The first is the attempt by the French Crown to act as absolute arbiter and guardian of standards by means of the institution of various Académies. ... More


Material Activity

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Eighteenth‐century matter theory—primarily the study of electricity, magnetism, pneumatics, chemistry, and physiology—appears as a network of different kinds of practice having no intrinsic ... More


Newtonianism and Anti-Newtonianism in the Early Enlightenment: Science, Philosophy, and Religion

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Advances in astronomy, physics, and mathematics prompted theologians and philosophers to turn to a new source — science — for help, guidance, confirmation, and support. This placed the predominant ... More


The Collapse of Cartesianism

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0025
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

A discerning observer of the world of learning, contemplating Europe's war of philosophies in 1700, might well have concluded that Cartesianism and its offshoot, Malebranchisme, were most strongly ... More


The Intellectual Drama in Spain and Portugal

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0028
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

From the 1680s onwards, the spread of Cartesianism, Malebranchisme, and other branches of the New Philosophy in Spain and Portugal generated a profound intellectual turmoil followed by a process of ... More


Metaphysics before Physics: The Cambridge Critique of Newtonian Religious Apologetic

CATHERINE OSBORNE

in Religion and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century England: Theological Debate from Locke to Burke

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269427
eISBN:
9780191683640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269427.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter examines criticism on Newtonian religious apologetic during the English Enlightenment period and discusses the conflict between physics and metaphysics. Philosopher P.M. Harman argued ... More


The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling

John H. Zammito

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226520797
eISBN:
9780226520827
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226520827.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This study traces the gestation of German biology from the debate about organism between Stahl and Leibniz to the formulation of developmental morphology in the era of Kielmeyer and Schelling. Over ... More


The Non-Normal Sciences: Survivals of Renaissance Thought in the Eighteenth Century

Gloria Flaherty

in Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth-Century Domains

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520200104
eISBN:
9780520916227
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520200104.003.0009
Subject:
Anthropology, Anthropology, Theory and Practice

Sometimes the non-normal sciences represented a revolt against the excesses of Newtonianism, but mostly they were various kinds of survivals from earlier ages that had retained some of the old ... More


The Untold Story

Roger L. Emerson

in Academic Patronage in the Scottish Enlightenment: Glasgow, Edinburgh and St Andrews Universities

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748625963
eISBN:
9780748653652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625963.003.0015
Subject:
Society and Culture, Scottish Studies

This chapter discusses the accomplishments of St Andrews during this period in trying to keep up with its competitors, though it failed to do so. It observes that St Andrews had shown concerns with ... More


Nicolas-Louis De La Caille, Astronomer and Geodesist: South African Astronomical Observatory

Ian Stewart Glass

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199668403
eISBN:
9780191749315
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668403.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This is a comprehensive biography of a great observational astronomer, Nicolas-Louis de La Caille (1713–62). Though educated for the priesthood, La Caille refused to be ordained and turned instead to ... More


The Future of Sympathy I:: The Poetry of the World

Seth Lobis

in Virtue of Sympathy: Magic, Philosophy, and Literature in Seventeenth-Century England

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780300192032
eISBN:
9780300210415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300192032.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter examines the complex legacy of Shaftesburianism and reveals the enduring vitality of natural and magical conceptions of sympathy through the first half of the eighteenth century. In so ... More


Early life

I.S. Glass

in Nicolas-Louis De La Caille, Astronomer and Geodesist: South African Astronomical Observatory

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199668403
eISBN:
9780191749315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668403.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

La Caille was educated to become a priest at the desire of his father. However, he refused ordination and turned to astronomy. He trained at the Paris Observatory under Jacques Cassini. At the time, ... More


Was there a ‘Haskalah’ in England? Reconsidering an Old Question

David B. Ruderman

in New Perspectives on the Haskalah

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9781874774617
eISBN:
9781800340145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781874774617.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This chapter investigates a largely unexplored facet of English Jewish history, reopening the issue of whether there was a Haskalah in England. Historians generally contend that the modernization of ... More


The Newton Wars and the Beginning of the French Enlightenment

J. B. Shank

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226749457
eISBN:
9780226749471
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226749471.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Nothing is considered more natural than the connection between Isaac Newton's science and the modernity that came into being during the eighteenth-century Enlightenment in France. Terms like ... More


The Project of Enlightenment (Master Systems)

Clifford Siskin

in System: The Shaping of Modern Knowledge

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035316
eISBN:
9780262336345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035316.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter offers a new take on the history of science by detailing how the turn from Scholasticism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries took the form of a gradual turn to system as the ... More


Oxford’s Newtonian school

Allan Chapman

in Oxford Figures: Eight Centuries of the Mathematical Sciences

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199681976
eISBN:
9780191761737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681976.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter describes the spread of Newtonianism in Oxford in the early 18th century, with particular reference to the contributions of David Gregory, John Desaguliers, James Bradley, and Nathaniel ... More


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