*Michael Friedman*

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- July 2005
- ISBN:
- 9780195177602
- eISBN:
- 9780199835553
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0195177606.003.0015
- Subject:
- Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter argues that since Kant's model of properly scientific knowledge is the Newtonian theory of universal gravitation, Kant's view of science is not predicated on a sharp distinction between ...
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This chapter argues that since Kant's model of properly scientific knowledge is the Newtonian theory of universal gravitation, Kant's view of science is not predicated on a sharp distinction between the “scientific image” and the “manifest image” of the world such as that familiar today. For Kant, the scientific image is simply a more precise and determinate version of the manifest image, and our contemporary opposition between scientific and ordinary experience — based, as it is, on a fundamental divergence between these two images — appears as entirely anachronistic and misplaced. For this reason, Kant's own examples of objects of experience — heavy bodies, houses, ships, freezing water, the earth, the moon, and the heavenly bodies, water rising due to capillarity, a stone being warmed by illumination of the sun, and so on — constitute what looks to us like a quite indiscriminate mix of “ordinary” and “scientific” cases.Less

This chapter argues that since Kant's model of properly scientific knowledge is the Newtonian theory of universal gravitation, Kant's view of science is not predicated on a sharp distinction between the “scientific image” and the “manifest image” of the world such as that familiar today. For Kant, the scientific image is simply a more precise and determinate version of the manifest image, and our contemporary opposition between scientific and ordinary experience — based, as it is, on a fundamental divergence between these two images — appears as entirely anachronistic and misplaced. For this reason, Kant's own examples of objects of experience — heavy bodies, houses, ships, freezing water, the earth, the moon, and the heavenly bodies, water rising due to capillarity, a stone being warmed by illumination of the sun, and so on — constitute what looks to us like a quite indiscriminate mix of “ordinary” and “scientific” cases.

*Ta-Pei Cheng*

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199573639
- eISBN:
- 9780191722448
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573639.003.0004
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

After a review of the Newtonian theory of gravitation in terms of its potential function, we start the study of general relativity (GR) with the introduction of the equivalence principle (EP). The ...
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After a review of the Newtonian theory of gravitation in terms of its potential function, we start the study of general relativity (GR) with the introduction of the equivalence principle (EP). The Weak EP (the equality of the gravitational and inertial masses) is extended by Einstein to the Strong EP, the equivalence between inertia and gravitation for all interactions. This implies the existence of “local inertial frames” at every spacetime point. In a sufficiently small region, the “local inertial observer” will not sense any gravity effect. The equivalence of acceleration and gravity means that GR (physics laws valid in all coordinate systems, including accelerating frames) must necessarily be a theory of gravitation. The strong EP is used to deduce the results of gravitational redshift and time dilation, as well as gravitational bending of a light ray.Less

After a review of the Newtonian theory of gravitation in terms of its potential function, we start the study of general relativity (GR) with the introduction of the equivalence principle (EP). The Weak EP (the equality of the gravitational and inertial masses) is extended by Einstein to the Strong EP, the equivalence between inertia and gravitation for all interactions. This implies the existence of “local inertial frames” at every spacetime point. In a sufficiently small region, the “local inertial observer” will not sense any gravity effect. The equivalence of acceleration and gravity means that GR (physics laws valid in all coordinate systems, including accelerating frames) must necessarily be a theory of gravitation. The strong EP is used to deduce the results of gravitational redshift and time dilation, as well as gravitational bending of a light ray.

*Ta-Pei Cheng*

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- August 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780199693405
- eISBN:
- 9780191803130
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693405.003.0004
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

After a review of the Newtonian theory of gravitation in terms of its potential function, this chapter starts the study of general relativity (GR) with the introduction of the equivalence principle ...
More

After a review of the Newtonian theory of gravitation in terms of its potential function, this chapter starts the study of general relativity (GR) with the introduction of the equivalence principle (EP). The weak EP (equality of gravitational and inertial masses) was extended by Einstein to the strong EP (equivalence between inertia and gravitation for all interactions). This implies the existence of “local inertial frames” at every spacetime point. In a sufficiently small region, a “local inertial observer” will not sense any gravitational effect. The equivalence of acceleration and gravity means that GR (with physics laws valid in all coordinate systems, including accelerating frames) must necessarily be a theory of gravitation. The strong EP is used to deduce results for gravitational redshift and time dilation, as well as gravitational bending of a light ray. The operation of GPS is shown to depend crucially on relativistic time dilation effects.Less

After a review of the Newtonian theory of gravitation in terms of its potential function, this chapter starts the study of general relativity (GR) with the introduction of the equivalence principle (EP). The weak EP (equality of gravitational and inertial masses) was extended by Einstein to the strong EP (equivalence between inertia and gravitation for all interactions). This implies the existence of “local inertial frames” at every spacetime point. In a sufficiently small region, a “local inertial observer” will not sense any gravitational effect. The equivalence of acceleration and gravity means that GR (with physics laws valid in all coordinate systems, including accelerating frames) must necessarily be a theory of gravitation. The strong EP is used to deduce results for gravitational redshift and time dilation, as well as gravitational bending of a light ray. The operation of GPS is shown to depend crucially on relativistic time dilation effects.