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David M. Armstrong

in Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199590612
eISBN:
9780191723391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590612.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

David Lewis' major contribution to the ontology of classes is to perceive that many‐membered classes are mereological sums of the singletons (unit‐classes of their members: {a, b, c, d, . . .} is ... More


Justification and the Psychology of Human Reasoning

Stephen Stich and Richard E. Nisbett

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter makes an extended case for the philosophical relevance of recent empirical work on reasoning. It focuses on the implications of this work for an analysis of justification of inductive ... More


A Nominalist Theory of Musical Works

Lydia Goehr

in The Imaginary Museum of Musical Works: An Essay in the Philosophy of Music

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235415
eISBN:
9780191597503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235410.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics

Lays the foundation for an investigation into the concept of a musical work according to the terms of analytic philosophy. It considers a range of analytic positions, but focuses ultimately on Nelson ... More


 Filmmaking and World Making: Re‐Creating Time and Space in Myth and Film

S. Brent Plate

in Teaching Religion and Film

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195335989
eISBN:
9780199868940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335989.003.0017
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter discusses the similar structures of religious worlds and films. It thus offers an introduction to theories and terms of religious studies through the popular medium of film. Drawing on ... More


Introduction

PETER SIMONS

in Parts: A Study in Ontology

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199241460
eISBN:
9780191696930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199241460.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This book provides a connected account of the various kinds of mereology, or formal theory of part, whole, and related concepts, which exist in the literature. It also exposes the philosophical ... More


Harvard and Oxford, 1946–1975

Bruce Kuklick

in A History of Philosophy in America: 1720-2000

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199260164
eISBN:
9780191597893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260168.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

From the end of World War II until the 1970s, professional philosophy was dominated by a form of speculation called ‘analytic philosophy’. This school of thought brought together the philosophical ... More


The Standard Conception of Composition

Kathrin Koslicki

in The Structure of Objects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199539895
eISBN:
9780191716300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539895.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Ancient Philosophy

This chapter is devoted to an exposition of the main concepts and principles of standard mereology, the system originally developed by Stanislaw Leśniewski and introduced into the English-speaking ... More


Induction

Alvin Plantinga

in Warrant and Proper Function

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195078640
eISBN:
9780199872213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195078640.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Broadly taken, the term “induction” denotes our whole nondeductive procedure of acquiring, maintaining, and discarding beliefs about what is so far unobserved or undetected or unknown. In this ... More


The Standard Criticisms of Comparativism

Robert J. Fogelin

in Figuratively Speaking: Revised Edition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199739998
eISBN:
9780199895045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739998.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

There has been almost universal agreement that Aristotle's so-called reduction of metaphors to similes is hopelessly inadequate. The philosophers who have lined up against Aristotle are an impressive ... More


Sensory Concepts

Mohan Matthen

in Seeing, Doing, and Knowing: A Philosophical Theory of Sense Perception

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199268504
eISBN:
9780191602283
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199268509.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

A number of influential positions in the philosophy of perception are grounded in the idea that the sensory image is raw and unprocessed. Dretske holds that sensation is analogue: he neglects ... More


The Sensory Ordering Thesis

Mohan Matthen

in Seeing, Doing, and Knowing: A Philosophical Theory of Sense Perception

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199268504
eISBN:
9780191602283
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199268509.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The Sensory Ordering Thesis is a ramified version of the Sensory Classification Thesis presented in Ch.1; it acknowledges that most sensory systems order distal objects, rather than place them in ... More


The Sources of Sensory Similarity

Mohan Matthen

in Seeing, Doing, and Knowing: A Philosophical Theory of Sense Perception

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199268504
eISBN:
9780191602283
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199268509.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In the Cartesian paradigm, similarity of sensation is explained by the similarity of receptor state; it is shown that this is empirically mistaken. C. R. Gallistel has suggested that sensory ... More


Varieties of Aboutness

Stephen Yablo

in Aboutness

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144955
eISBN:
9781400845989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144955.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

A few philosophers have tried to think systematically about subject matter. Gilbert Ryle thought a sentence was about the items mentioned in it. Nelson Goodman thought it was about the items ... More


Simplicity as a Pragmatic Criterion for Deciding What Hypotheses to Take Seriously

Gilbert Harman

in Reasoning, Meaning, and Mind

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238027
eISBN:
9780191597633
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238029.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Simplicity is used in curve‐fitting and can be illustrated by Goodman's ‘new riddle of induction.’ Taking the simplicity of a hypothesis to depend entirely on the simplicity of the way it is ... More


Exemplary Individuals: Toward a Phenomenological Ethics

Edith Wyschogrod

in Crossover Queries: Dwelling with Negatives, Embodying Philosophy's Others

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823226061
eISBN:
9780823235148
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823226061.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Using the phenomenological strategies of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Emmanuel Levinas, this chapter describes how the conditions of embodied existence make carnal generality ... More


Induction, Samples, and Kinds

Peter Godfrey-Smith

in Carving Nature at Its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015936
eISBN:
9780262298780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015936.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter criticizes a familiar group of ideas about “inductive” inference, and uses that criticism to promote a different group. Many hold on to the position that induction is rational because, ... More


Introduction Globalization or World-Making?

Nathalie Karagiannis and Peter Wagner

in Varieties of World-Making: Beyond Globalization

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9781846310195
eISBN:
9781781380857
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/UPO9781846314346.001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This introductory chapter begins with a brief discussion of the ways of conceptualizing world–making. It considers the thought of Hannah Arendt, Jean–Luc Nancy, and Nelson Goodman. It then turns to ... More


Identity: Two Regimes

Frédéric Pouillaude

in Unworking Choreography: The Notion of the Work in Dance

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780199314645
eISBN:
9780190649968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199314645.003.0010
Subject:
Music, Dance, Philosophy of Music

This chapter examines in detail the identity of the choreographic work, which has the peculiarity of being unwritten yet repeatable. In order to do so, the chapter constructs a theoretical framework ... More


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