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The Supply of Information Technology Workers, Higher Education, and Computing Research: A History of Policy and Practice in the United States

William Aspray

in Information Technology Policy: An International History

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199241057
eISBN:
9780191714290
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199241057.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

This chapter presents the history of policies and practices in the supply of IT workers, especially as they relate to policy for higher education and computing research, in the United States. There ... More


Research Funding, Authority Relations, and Scientific Production in Switzerland

Martin Benninghoff and Dietmar Braun

in Reconfiguring Knowledge Production: Changing Authority Relationships in the Sciences and their Consequences for Intellectual Innovation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199590193
eISBN:
9780191723445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590193.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Knowledge Management

This chapter examines the changes that have taken place in the political organization of research and its possible consequences for research behaviour and research performance by analysing a specific ... More


The Exploratorium Effect:: Redefining Relevance and Interactive Display, 1969–1980

Karen A. Rader and Victoria E. M. Cain

in Life on Display: Revolutionizing U.S. Museums of Science and Natural History in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226079660
eISBN:
9780226079837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226079837.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In 1969, physicist Frank Oppenheimer founded a new kind of museum, the Exploratorium, which he hoped would democratize the museum experience and make scientific knowledge accessible to broader ... More


“An Investment in the Future of America”:: Competing Pedagogies in Post-Sputnik Museums, 1957–1969

Karen A. Rader and Victoria E. M. Cain

in Life on Display: Revolutionizing U.S. Museums of Science and Natural History in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226079660
eISBN:
9780226079837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226079837.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

After Sputnik’s launch, science and natural history museum directors urged the federal government to invest more heavily in the informal education that museums offered. But what constituted effective ... More


Diversifying Displays, Diverging Museums:: Postwar Life Science Education, 1941–1956

Karen A. Rader and Victoria E. M. Cain

in Life on Display: Revolutionizing U.S. Museums of Science and Natural History in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226079660
eISBN:
9780226079837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226079837.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

During World War II, both natural history and science museums contributed to the war effort by offering scientific expertise and education to troops and citizens. Both science and natural history ... More


The Subject and the State: The Origins of the New Math

Christopher J. Phillips

in The New Math: A Political History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226184968
eISBN:
9780226185019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226185019.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter analyzes the bureaucratic and financial origins of mid-century federal support for education reform in general and the National Science Foundation’s curriculum projects in particular. ... More


What Is Our Impact?: Toward a Unified Framework for Evaluating Outcomes of Citizen Science Participation

Tina Phillips, Rick Bonney, and Jennifer L. Shirk

in Citizen Science: Public Participation in Environmental Research

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801449116
eISBN:
9780801463952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801449116.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on citizen science program evaluation in informal settings. It first considers the historic rationale for evidence-based educational research before presenting a working matrix, ... More


The New Math: A Political History

Christopher J. Phillips

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226184968
eISBN:
9780226185019
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226185019.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The new math changed the way Americans think about mathematics. The mathematicians and teachers who designed the novel and controversial curriculum in the late 1950s--generously supported by the ... More


Law in the Laboratory: A Guide to the Ethics of Federally Funded Science Research

Robert P. Charrow

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226101644
eISBN:
9780226101668
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226101668.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

The National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation together fund more than $40 billon of research annually in the United States and around the globe. These large public ... More


R&D Exports and Imports: New Data and Methodological Issues

Francisco Moris

in International Trade in Services and Intangibles in the Era of Globalization

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226709598
eISBN:
9780226709604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226709604.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter discusses issues of globalization statistics and research and development (R&D) accounting as defined in several international statistical manuals and presents U.S. data on R&D-related ... More


The Meteorologists: Corralling the Research Agenda

Kristine C. Harper

in Make It Rain: State Control of the Atmosphere in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780226437231
eISBN:
9780226437378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226437378.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter addresses the work of meteorologists during the 1950s as they focused on understanding the underlying physics of precipitation processes. The weather control juggernaut, however, ... More


From Grass Roots to a National Movement

Paul A. Shackel

in New Philadelphia: An Archaeology of Race in the Heartland

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520266292
eISBN:
9780520947832
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520266292.003.0004
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

The New Philadelphia Association (NPA) had tried to increase awareness of the place and raise a significant amount of money to save New Philadelphia from future development, but had accumulated only ... More


A Way Forward for Universities, Science, and Scientists

Elaine Howard Ecklund and Anne E. Lincoln

in Failing Families, Failing Science: Work-Family Conflict in Academic Science

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781479843121
eISBN:
9781479851188
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479843121.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Occupations, Professions, and Work

Chapter 6, “A Way Forward for Universities, Science, and Scientists,” argues that universities and national science bodies must restructure to better meet the needs of the modern academic scientist, ... More


Financial Conflicts of Interest: The Legacy of Shoeless Joe Jackson

in Law in the Laboratory: A Guide to the Ethics of Federally Funded Science Research

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226101644
eISBN:
9780226101668
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226101668.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter focuses on the three types of financial conflict of interest laws affecting the scientific research community. The first section examines personal financial conflicts pertaining to those ... More


What Should We Study?

Kevin C. Elliott

in A Tapestry of Values: An Introduction to Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780190260804
eISBN:
9780190260842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190260804.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

While it is relatively uncontroversial that values have a legitimate role to play in choosing research topics, this chapter argues that there are still important questions about how to prioritize ... More


A difficult choice

François Grosjean

in A Journey in Languages and Cultures: The Life of a Bicultural Bilingual

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198754947
eISBN:
9780191816437
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198754947.003.0012
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

In 1984, the author obtained a grant from the National Science Foundation to research the processing of mixed speech in bilinguals. He describes the studies that he undertook with his team along with ... More


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