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Biotechnology Dilemma 1: Patented Research Tools and Experimental Use

Michael A. Carrier

in Innovation for the 21st Century: Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Property and Antitrust Law

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195342581
eISBN:
9780199867035
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342581.003.0011
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Research tools used by scientists are essential for innovation in the biotechnology industry. In recent years, the patenting of such tools has skyrocketed with many scholars and organizations ... More


Biotechnology Dilemma 2: Material Transfer Agreements

Michael A. Carrier

in Innovation for the 21st Century: Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Property and Antitrust Law

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195342581
eISBN:
9780199867035
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342581.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter focuses on material transfer agreements (MTAs). Scientists frequently need and request materials owned by others. The most common request involves biological materials such as genes, ... More


Sources of Information for Change and Innovation

Stuart Macdonald

in Information for Innovation: Managing Change from an Information Perspective

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199241477
eISBN:
9780191696947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199241477.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Organization Studies

This chapter explains where information is gathered, and how it affects change and innovation. It starts by providing examples on how the Japanese adapted to technology change by using methods that ... More


Resistance to Information: The Organization and the Independent Inventor

Stuart Macdonald

in Information for Innovation: Managing Change from an Information Perspective

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199241477
eISBN:
9780191696947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199241477.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Organization Studies

This chapter explains how organizations resist information from external sources. It starts with an elaboration of the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome, the condition in which organizations reject ... More


What Is Academic Research?

James W. Dean Jr. and Deborah Y. Clarke

in The Insider's Guide to Working with Universities: Practical Insights for Board Members, Businesspeople, Entrepreneurs, Philanthropists, Alumni, Parents, and Administrators

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9781469653419
eISBN:
9781469653433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469653419.003.0008
Subject:
Education, Higher and Further Education

This chapter explains the nature and importance of university research in various fields, how and what research is funded, and the management and monetization of intellectual property.


Animal Use and Care

Dean O. Smith

in Managing the Research University

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199793259
eISBN:
9780199896813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199793259.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Federal legislation requires all suppliers of research animals to hold a license issued by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Class A breeders breed or acquire animals solely for ... More


Epilogue: Fifty Years Later

Suzanne Bourgeois

in Genesis of the Salk Institute: The Epic of Its Founders

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780520276079
eISBN:
9780520956599
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520276079.003.0013
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The epilogue briefly summarizes the major changes that have occurred at the institute in the fifty years of its existence. The staff has reached twice the size planned by Salk, and the fellows and ... More


Making a Molecular Regulatory Science

Sara Shostak

in Exposed Science: Genes, the Environment, and the Politics of Population Health

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780520275171
eISBN:
9780520955240
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520275171.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Chapter 5 examines scientists’ efforts to facilitate the diffusion of a specific molecular practice-toxicogenomics-from the laboratories of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the NIEHS to the ... More


Statisticians, Statistics, and Early Cooperative Clinical Trials

Peter Keating and Alberto Cambrosio

in Cancer on Trial: Oncology as a New Style of Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226428918
eISBN:
9780226428932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226428932.003.0069
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the statisticians at the NIH and their role in the establishment of the different components of the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center (CCNSC). It also discusses the ... More


An Ethics of Place

Laura Stark

in Behind Closed Doors: IRBs and the Making of Ethical Research

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226770864
eISBN:
9780226770888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226770888.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the history of institutional view boards (IRBs) in the context of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center in the U.S. It explains that when the center opened in ... More


The Many Forms of Consent

Laura Stark

in Behind Closed Doors: IRBs and the Making of Ethical Research

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226770864
eISBN:
9780226770888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226770888.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the history of the forms of consents in the United States. It discusses the rules for proof of consent during the 1950s and 1960s and the opposition of National Institutes of ... More


Who's Minding the Store?

Lynn C. Klotz and Edward J. Sylvester

in Breeding Bio Insecurity: How U.S. Biodefense Is Exporting Fear, Globalizing Risk, and Making Us All Less Secure

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226444055
eISBN:
9780226444079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226444079.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biotechnology

Usually everybody trusts the research institutions' legally mandated institutional biosafety committees (IBCs) to safeguard neighborhoods from harm at the local level by providing expert oversight ... More


The Late Twentieth and Early Twenty-First Centuries: Government Support for Interdisciplinarity

John H. Aldrich

in Interdisciplinarity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199331345
eISBN:
9780190208998
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199331345.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

In this chapter, the analysis of the last three chapters is extended through today. The first major point is that, while the foundations continue to provide considerable support to the social science ... More


Wall Street Gold

Kersten T. Hall

in Insulin - The Crooked Timber: A History from Thick Brown Muck to Wall Street Gold

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
March 2022
ISBN:
9780192855381
eISBN:
9780191945571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192855381.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

While researchers at Harvard and UCSF raced to be the first to clone and express human insulin, a third horse had entered this race and would ultimately be the first to cross the finish line. This ... More


Computer- Based Assessment

Philip Schatz

in The Role of Technology in Clinical Neuropsychology

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190234737
eISBN:
9780197559543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190234737.003.0007
Subject:
Computer Science, Virtual Reality

Since the 1950s, academic and researchers have examined artificial intelligence and the use of computers for assistance with, or automation of, data collection (Schatz & Browndyke, 2002). In the ... More


The Educational System and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Michael Ellis

in Caring for Autism: Practical Advice from a Parent and Physician

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190259358
eISBN:
9780197559574
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190259358.003.0013
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Navigating the educational system is likely the most treacherous and frustrating part of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Often parents feel that they have to be lawyers to ... More


“NIH’s Window to the Health Care Community”: The NIH Consensus Development Conference Program

Miriam Solomon

in Making Medical Knowledge

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780198732617
eISBN:
9780191796838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732617.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

In this chapter, the history of the NIH Consensus Development Conference Program (1977–2013) is discussed, with a focus on the creation of the program, the evaluations of the program, and the changes ... More


From the NIH Model to the Danish Model: The Medical Consensus Conference Movement

Miriam Solomon

in Making Medical Knowledge

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780198732617
eISBN:
9780191796838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732617.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the development of the medical consensus conference movement. The NIH Consensus Development Conference Program was the model for medical consensus conferences in the US, Canada, ... More


Constructing the Genome Commons

Jorge L. Contreras

in Governing Knowledge Commons

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199972036
eISBN:
9780199361908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199972036.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law, Environmental and Energy Law

Basic scientific research is often viewed as a public good: a nondepletable, nonrival resource in the public domain. The vast collection of genomic data generated since the Human Genome Project ... More


Reverence and Ethics in Science

Jeffrey Kovac

in The Ethical Chemist: Professionalism and Ethics in Science

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190668648
eISBN:
9780197559772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190668648.003.0008
Subject:
Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry

The previous chapter developed the professional code of ethics for science based on a three-part moral ideal. An important question that was left unanswered is: Why should professionals obey this ... More


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