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Intervention in Ottoman Lebanon and Syria (1860–61)

Davide Rodogno

in Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire, 1815-1914

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151335
eISBN:
9781400840014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151335.003.0005
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter examines the European powers' military intervention in Ottoman Lebanon and Syria during the period 1860–1861. It first considers the local and international context prior to the ... More


Knowledge and Ignorance

in The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520218451
eISBN:
9780520922792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520218451.003.0003
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter aims to sketch the outlines of social order in this multireligious society and to explore the nature of violence that regulated this order. It also examines European perceptions of Mount ... More


Reinventing Mount Lebanon

in The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520218451
eISBN:
9780520922792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520218451.003.0005
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter investigates how Mount Lebanon was reinvented in sectarian terms by rival elites after the Europeans and Ottomans decided to partition it along religious lines in 1842. It explores how ... More


The Gentle Crusade

in The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520218451
eISBN:
9780520922792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520218451.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter contrasts European perceptions of Mount Lebanon as a mountainous refuge indomitably holding out against an Islamic despotism with local understandings of Mount Lebanon's rural world. It ... More


“A Very Old Thing”

in The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520218451
eISBN:
9780520922792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520218451.003.0008
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter focuses on how a knowledge of sectarianism as antimodern was produced—how and why the violence of modern sectarianism in Mount Lebanon was relegated to the domain of tribal fanaticism by ... More


The Construction of Two Radical Networks in Beirut and Alexandria

Ilham Khuri-Makdisi

in The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860-1914

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520262010
eISBN:
9780520945463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520262010.003.0005
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter concentrates on two self-proclaimed radical networks, one predominantly based in Beirut and Mount Lebanon and an Italian anarchist network in Alexandria. The main protagonists of this ... More


Religion as the Site of the Colonial Encounter

in The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520218451
eISBN:
9780520922792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520218451.003.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter reconstructs the history of modern sectarian identity in Ottoman Mount Lebanon, which provided the stage on which cataclysmic violence in 1860 was enacted. It notes that the story begins ... More


The Return of the Juhhal

in The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520218451
eISBN:
9780520922792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520218451.003.0006
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter tells the story of the most sustained popular mobilization in nineteenth-century Mount Lebanon, recognizing from the outset that it is implicated in another tale of the unfolding of the ... More


The Devil's Work

in The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520218451
eISBN:
9780520922792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520218451.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter narrates how the elites of Mount Lebanon repeatedly and desperately tried to regain the initiative from the mobilized populace as the war proceeded, and how they finally succeeded in ... More


Epilogue

in The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520218451
eISBN:
9780520922792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520218451.003.0009
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter discusses the relationship between sectarianism and nationalism, underscoring its contention that sectarianism as an idea draws meaning only within a nationalist paradigm and hence ... More


A Tale of Two Mountains

Andrew Arsan

in Interlopers of Empire: The Lebanese Diaspora in Colonial French West Africa

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199333387
eISBN:
9780199388202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199333387.003.0002
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter examines the economic ecology of the two regions from which Eastern Mediterranean migrants to French West Africa hailed – the Matn, in central Mount Lebanon, and Jabal ‘Amil, to the ... More


Social Conflict, Sects, and Foreign Intervention: The Tanzimat and the Events of 1860

Azmi Bishara

in Sectarianism without Sects

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780197602744
eISBN:
9780197610886
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197602744.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Middle Eastern Politics

This chapter contemplates the production of shared identity in the modern age and the creation of a framework for comparison and the couching of grievances between those who share that identity. It ... More


Beginnings: Mount Lebanon before 1840

Ozan Ozavci

in Dangerous Gifts: Imperialism, Security, and Civil Wars in the Levant, 1798-1864

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198852964
eISBN:
9780191888441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198852964.003.0010
Subject:
History, Middle East History, Political History

This chapter portrays the pre-1840 history of Mount Lebanon. Using fresh archival sources, it discloses that, in contrast to the revisionist scholarship that attributes the sectarian violence in ... More


The Two Wars

Ozan Ozavci

in Dangerous Gifts: Imperialism, Security, and Civil Wars in the Levant, 1798-1864

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198852964
eISBN:
9780191888441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198852964.003.0012
Subject:
History, Middle East History, Political History

The first inter-imperial war amongst the Great Powers since the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the Crimean War (1853–1856) shook the world and devastated peoples, economies, and finances. Some ... More


Adele Azar’s Notebook: Charity and Feminism

Salim Tamari

in Great War and the Remaking of Palestine

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780520291256
eISBN:
9780520965102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520291256.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter demonstrates how at the turn of the century, the use of family endowments and benevolent associations created the earliest forms of independent women's groups. It studies the notebook of ... More


An Untimely Return of the Eastern Question?

Ozan Ozavci

in Dangerous Gifts: Imperialism, Security, and Civil Wars in the Levant, 1798-1864

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198852964
eISBN:
9780191888441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198852964.003.0013
Subject:
History, Middle East History, Political History

When the news of the 1860 civil war in Syria and the ‘massacres’ of the Christians by the Druze reached Paris, the French foreign minister, Édouard A. Thouvenel, proposed the courts of the other ... More


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