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The Foundations of the Rule of Law as a Moral Ideal

Raymond Plant

in The Neo-liberal State

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199281756
eISBN:
9780191713040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199281756.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Theory

Given that the rule of law as embodied in the basic nomocratic order of the neo‐liberal state is based upon a moral ideal, and given that these rules as constitutional rules can be seen as a ... More


The Rising Tide: Neoliberal Ideas in the Postwar Period

Daniel Stedman Jones

in Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161013
eISBN:
9781400851836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161013.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter talks about how a distinct neoliberal worldview was built on the foundations of the critique of New Deal liberalism and social democracy synthesized in the writings of Ludwig von Mises, ... More


Neoliberalism, Rationality, and the Savage Slot

Julia Elyachar

in Mutant Neoliberalism: Market Rule and Political Rupture

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780823285716
eISBN:
9780823288793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823285716.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter upends usual discussions of neoliberal governmentality by focusing on the relation of neoliberalism to the irrational. The central task of neoliberalism in its early days was to ... More


Chance and Probability

Colin Howson

in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250371
eISBN:
9780191597749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250371.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Considers the nature of chance and its role in statistical hypotheses. It is argued that the best way to understand chance is as tendency, naturally measured by the frequency in repeated trials of ... More


Limits to elastic response. Yielding and failure

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents conditions for determining the limits of elastic behaviour for isotropic materials. The stress invariants of equivalent pressure, equivalent shear stress, and equivalent tensile ... More


Stress

Adrian P. Sutton

in Physics of Elasticity and Crystal Defects

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198860785
eISBN:
9780191893001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198860785.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Crystallography: Physics

The concept of stress is introduced in terms of interatomic forces acting through a plane, and in the Cauchy sense of a force per unit area on a plane in a continuum. Normal stresses and shear ... More


Three-dimensional plasticity with isotropic hardening

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter provides an introduction to isotropic hardening plasticity models in the three-dimensional small strain setting. The additive decomposition of the strain is introduced along with the ... More


Libertarians I

Christopher Pierson

in Just Property: Volume Three: Property in an Age of Ideologies

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198787105
eISBN:
9780191831683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198787105.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of what we mean by libertarianism. I explore the ways in which the forerunners of contemporary libertarianism came to justify a regime of minimally ... More


Socialism, Capitalism, and the State

Geoffrey M. Hodgson

in Conceptualizing Capitalism: Institutions, Evolution, Future

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226168005
eISBN:
9780226168142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226168142.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

This chapter turns to the question of socialism, noting the origins of the term in the 1830s. Until the 1940s, socialism meant the abolition of private property. One of the first economists to ... More


Where Keynes Went Wrong

Hunter Lewis

in The Intellectual Origins of the Global Financial Crisis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780823249602
eISBN:
9780823250752
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823249602.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Part historical narrative and part a critique Keynesianism, this chapter argues that the bi-partisan consensus on Keynsian responses to the financial crisis is mistaken. Hunter Lewis illuminates some ... More


Analysis of Multi-Axial Stress and Strain

Sanjay Govindjee

in Engineering Mechanics of Deformable Solids: A Presentation with Exercises

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199651641
eISBN:
9780191775017
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199651641.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter, which introduces the concepts of stress and strain transformations, principal values, and principal directions, presents the graphical technique of Mohr's circle as well as the notion ... More


The Road to Evolution

Naomi Beck

in Hayek and the Evolution of Capitalism

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780226556000
eISBN:
9780226556147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226556147.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The first chapter traces the origins of Hayek’s interest in the natural sciences and in questions of epistemology, dating back to his formative years. The presumed transformation that took place in ... More


Isotropic Baselines

Richard M. Christensen

in The Theory of Materials Failure

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199662111
eISBN:
9780191748387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662111.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In considering the failure of isotropic materials, a general theory of failure must involve a minimal number of properties that then apply across all major types of materials from ductile metals to ... More


Isotropic Materials Failure Behavior

Richard M. Christensen

in The Theory of Materials Failure

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199662111
eISBN:
9780191748387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662111.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The failure theory for isotropic materials was derived in the previous chapter, with the end result being the mathematical forms of the failure criteria. Now it is important to visualize the failure ... More


Positivism and Socialism

Bruce Caldwell

in Hayek's Challenge: An Intellectual Biography of F.A. Hayek

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226091914
eISBN:
9780226091921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226091921.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

In 1903, Carl Menger stepped down from his chair at the University of Vienna, succeeded by Friedrich von Wieser. The next year, Eugen Böhm-Bawerk concluded his third stint as minister of finance, and ... More


Hayek in Vienna

Bruce Caldwell

in Hayek's Challenge: An Intellectual Biography of F.A. Hayek

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226091914
eISBN:
9780226091921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226091921.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter describes Friedrich August von Hayek's family and early history; his student days; Friedrich von Wieser's influence on Hayek; and the relationship between Hayek and Ludwig von Mises.


Distribution

Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer

in The Point of View of the Universe: Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199603695
eISBN:
9780191781834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199603695.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

If happiness is the good, how should it be distributed? Should we take into account only the happiness of human beings, or of all those capable of experiencing pleasure and pain? Should we favour an ... More


Two Non-senses of “Probability”

Wayne C. Myrvold

in Beyond Chance and Credence: A Theory of Hybrid Probabilities

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780198865094
eISBN:
9780191897481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865094.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter engages in some ground-clearing. Two concepts have been proposed to play the role of objective probability. One is associated with the idea that probability involves mere counting of ... More


The return of Karl Polanyi: from the Bennington Lectures to Our Present Age of Transformation

Kari Polanyi Levitt

in Karl Polanyi and twenty-first-century capitalism

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781526127884
eISBN:
9781526155450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7765/9781526127891.00008
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Continuing previous work on the power of ideas, this chapter frames developments since the publication of The Great Transformation in terms of the successive intellectual influence of John Maynard ... More


Ordinal Utility: Pareto and the Austrians, 1900–1915

Ivan Moscati

in Measuring Utility: From the Marginal Revolution to Behavioral Economics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780199372768
eISBN:
9780199372805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199372768.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Chapter 5 deals with the ordinal revolution in utility analysis inaugurated by Vilfredo Pareto around 1900. The fundamental notion of Pareto’s analysis was that of preference, and he conceived of ... More


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