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Bread from Stones: The Middle East and the Making of Modern Humanitarianism

Keith David Watenpaugh

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780520279308
eISBN:
9780520960800
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520279308.001.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Bread from Stones explores how modern humanitarianism evolved in the face of the historical experience of mass violence, starvation, human trafficking, and the displacement of millions in the early ... More


• Toward a Greater Lebanon

Hakim Carol

in The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840-1920

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780520273412
eISBN:
9780520954717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273412.003.0009
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter covers World War I and the subsequent developments that ultimately led to the establishment of a Lebanese state. It argues that this outcome was not predetermined and that members of the ... More


• The Emergence of Lebanism: The Lebanese Setting

Hakim Carol

in The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840-1920

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780520273412
eISBN:
9780520954717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273412.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter first outlines the general situation in Mount Lebanon at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It then covers the local circumstances that led the Maronite Patriarch to raise a claim ... More


• The Secular Elite and the Mutasarrifiyya

Hakim Carol

in The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840-1920

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780520273412
eISBN:
9780520954717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273412.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter examines the rise of new secular elite in Mount Lebanon and its attempts, by the turn of the twentieth century, to address growing political and economic problems in the Mountain. It ... More


The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840-1920

Carol Hakim

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780520273412
eISBN:
9780520954717
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273412.001.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This book presents a new and original narrative of the origins and development of the Lebanese national idea. It challenges nationalist accounts that trace the origins of Lebanese nationalism back to ... More


Introduction

Afshon Ostovar

in Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

This chapter begins with a narrative of the 2011 takeover of the British Embassy in Tehran by Basij students. The semiotics of the episode are used to explain some of the core characteristics of the ... More


• The Mutasarrifiyya Framework: An Equivocal Legacya

Hakim Carol

in The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840-1920

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780520273412
eISBN:
9780520954717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273412.003.0006
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter reviews changes in the Mountain following the establishment of a new semiautonomous administration and then outlines the different nationalist currents that surfaced at that time in the ... More


In Defense of the Family of the Prophet

Afshon Ostovar

in Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

Iran has had a vested interest in shaping the outcomes of the Arab Spring. The IRGC had learned with the fall of Saddam that it could successfully exploit power vacuums for strategic gains. Syria’s ... More


Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Afshon Ostovar

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

This book is about the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) and its ascent to become one of the most formidable entities in Iran and the Middle East. It follows the organization from its birth ... More


Warriors of Karbala

Afshon Ostovar

in Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

Shiite Islam is central to the IRGC’s organizational identity. This chapter examines the organization’s approach to identity formation and how it expressed that identity through cultural work. Early ... More


• The 1908 Revolution and Its Aftermath

Hakim Carol

in The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840-1920

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780520273412
eISBN:
9780520954717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273412.003.0008
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter covers developments in the Mountain in the wake of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. It examines how local elites struggled to adapt to the new conditions that emerged in the Ottoman ... More


The Long War

Afshon Ostovar

in Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

After the successful spring 1982 offenses, Iran’s leaders decided to push into Iraq. The counter-invasion of Iraq was a turning point in the war. The IRGC’s influence in the war steadily grew during ... More


Conclusion

Afshon Ostovar

in Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

The concluding chapter returns to the central themes of the book: the role of conflict—regional, political, religious, and ideological—in the formation of the IRGC and the Islamic Republic; the ... More


The Imposed War

Afshon Ostovar

in Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

This chapter covers the first period of the Iran-Iraq war, from Saddam’s invasion in September 1980 to the spring offenses of 1982. The IRGC had little training or resources when the war began. Its ... More


Exporting the Revolution

Afshon Ostovar

in Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

This chapter discusses Iran’s desire to export its revolution and the IRGC’s role in that effort. After war with Saddam began, exporting the revolution became a divisive issue that split the ... More


Epilogue

Afshon Ostovar

in Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199387892
eISBN:
9780190491727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199387892.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

The Russian military intervention in the Syrian civil war changed the strategic landscape of that conflict. Iran’s pro-Assad position as emboldened by Russia’s support, and the IRGC’s role in the war ... More


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