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Measuring Begging and Alms-Giving

Ciarán McCabe

in Begging, Charity and Religion in Pre-Famine Ireland

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781786941572
eISBN:
9781789629002
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781786941572.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

Attempts to measure the extent of beggary and the amount doled out in alms to mendicants was part of a desire among the ‘respectable’ middling classes to understand the ‘problem’ of mendicancy. ... More


Transformations

Robert E. Newnham

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0004
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Many physical properties depend on direction and the resulting anisotropy is best described with the use of tensors. Tensors are classified according to how they transform from one coordinate ... More


Tensors and physical properties

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

In this chapter we introduce the tensor description of physical properties along with Neumann’s Principle relating symmetry to physical properties. As pointed out in the introduction, many ... More


Thermodynamic relationships

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

In the next few chapters we shall discuss tensors of rank zero to four which relate the intensive variables in the outer triangle of the Heckmann Diagram to the extensive variables in the inner ... More


Specific heat and entropy

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Before beginning the discussion of directional properties, we pause to consider specific heat, an important scalar property of solids which helps illustrate the important thermodynamic ... More


Pyroelectricity

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0010
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

As the name implies, pyroelectricity is a first rank tensor property relating a change polarization P to a change in temperature δT. The defining relation can also be written in terms of the ... More


Thermal expansion

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

When a material is heated uniformly it undergoes a strain described by the Relationship … xij = αijΔT, … where αij are the thermal expansion coefficients and


Piezoelectricity

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0014
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The prefix “piezo” (pronounced pie-ease-o) comes from the Greek word for pressure or mechanical force. Piezoelectricity refers to the linear coupling between mechanical stress and electric ... More


Elasticity

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0015
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

All solids change shape under mechanical force. Under small stresses, the strain x is related to stress X by Hooke’s Law (x) = (s)(X), or the converse relationship (X) = (c)(x). The elastic ... More


Diffusion and ionic conductivity

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0021
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The phenomenon of atomic and ionic migration in crystals is called solidstate diffusion, and its study has shed light on many problems of technological and scientific importance. Diffusion is ... More


Optical activity and enantiomorphism

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0032
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

When plane-polarized light enters a crystal it divides into right- and lefthanded circularly polarized waves. If the crystal possesses handedness, the two waves travel with different speeds, and ... More


Chemical anisotropy

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0034
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Chemical anisotropy concerns the ways in which crystals grow or dissolve in different directions. It is an appropriate subject to end this book because it brings together the oldest and the newest ... More


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