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Walk the Way of Free Men: Malcolm X, Displaying the Original Man, and Troubling the Black Press as the Voice of the Race

D'Weston Haywood

in Let Us Make Men: The Twentieth-Century Black Press and a Manly Vision for Racial Advancement

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781469643397
eISBN:
9781469643410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469643397.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter reinterprets the rise of black radicalism as a moment of competing “voices” across competing mass medias amid rapid changes in the black freedom struggle and media landscape of the ... More


The Chickens Coming Home to Roost: Malcolm X, the Congo, and Modern Black Nationalism

Ira Dworkin

in Congo Love Song: African American Culture and the Crisis of the Colonial State

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781469632711
eISBN:
9781469632735
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469632711.003.0010
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter presents Malcolm X’s travels in Africa during the months leading up to the Stanleyville (Kisangani) crisis of November 1964. Speeches, diaries, correspondence, FBI surveillance reports, ... More


Vanguard

Joseph R. Fitzgerald

in The Struggle Is Eternal: Gloria Richardson and Black Liberation

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780813176499
eISBN:
9780813176529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813176499.003.0010
Subject:
History, Social History

Richardson’s influence on the development of Black Power through ACT, an organization she cofounded with other radical activists in 1964, is the focus of this chapter. ACT’s goal was to provide aid ... More


King the Sellout, or Sellin’ Out King?: Hip Hop’s Martin Luther King Jr.

James L. Taylor

in Dream and Legacy: Dr. Martin Luther King in the Post-Civil Rights Era

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781496811844
eISBN:
9781496811882
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781496811844.003.0009
Subject:
History, Political History

Imani Perry of Princeton University has raised the following question: “Why does the hip hop audience believe that it is okay to embrace the past, to converse with it, without adhering to its ... More


From Civil Rights to Black Nationalism: Hollywood V. Black America?

Trevor B. McCrisken and Andrew Pepper

in American History and Contemporary Hollywood Film

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748614899
eISBN:
9780748670666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748614899.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

If contemporary filmmakers have felt compelled to do away with the explicit racism of pre-civil rights Hollywood movie-making and make African Americans the subjects rather than the objects of their ... More


Flexing a New Womanhood

Ula Yvette Taylor

in The Promise of Patriarchy: Women and the Nation of Islam

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781469633930
eISBN:
9781469633954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469633930.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies

This chapter details the Muslim Girls Training and General Civilization Class (MGT-GCC) instruction for women. The role of Sister Captain Burnsteen Sharrieff is highlighted along with Lottie and ... More


Black Star, Crescent Moon: The Muslim International and Black Freedom beyond America

Sohail Daulatzai

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816675852
eISBN:
9781452947600
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816675852.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Religion

“The same rebellion, the same impatience, the same anger that exists in the hearts of the dark people in Africa and Asia,” Malcolm X declared in a 1962 speech, “is existing in the hearts and minds of ... More


The Life of Elijah Muhammad

Herbert Berg

in Elijah Muhammad and Islam

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814791134
eISBN:
9780814789971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814791134.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter sketches the life of Elijah Muhammad, including his life before the Nation of Islam, his tutelage under Fard Muhammad, his struggles to keep the movement alive during years of ... More


Black Manhood and the End of Nonviolence

Simon Wendt

in The Spirit and the Shotgun: Armed Resistance and the Struggle for Civil Rights

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780813030180
eISBN:
9780813051543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813030180.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter describes the shift of some of the major groups of the Black Power movement towards aggressive violence and even guerilla warfare in the second half of the 1960s. Since the late 1950s, ... More


The Black University and the “Total Community”

Russell Rickford

in We Are an African People: Independent Education, Black Power, and the Radical Imagination

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199861477
eISBN:
9780190455637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199861477.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the ideal of the “Black University,” a crucial theoretical framework for the politics of institution building in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The Black University, a concept ... More


Confronted with Too Much

Todd McGowan

in Spike Lee

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038143
eISBN:
9780252095405
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038143.003.0001
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

This chapter analyzes the films of Spike Lee. Lee's films employ types of excess such as unconventional shots, extreme characters, and improbable scenes to intervene in critical issues that trouble ... More


“Island in a Sea of Ignorance” “Islam allows you to look beyond the wall.”—Umar Abdul Jalil

Robert Dannin

in Black Pilgrimage to Islam

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195300246
eISBN:
9780199850433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300246.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Islam

The Autobiography of Malcolm X is about how a criminal referred to as “Satan” came out of prison and became an orator and a significant figure in international politics. ... More


Conclusion: Malcolm X’s Enlistment of Hamlet and Spinoza

Jeremy Matthew Glick

in Black Radical Tragic: "Performance, Aesthetics, and the Unfinished Haitian Revolution"

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781479844425
eISBN:
9781479814855
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479844425.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

I look at the theoretical and political implications of Malcolm X’s evocation of Hamlet in his Oxford Union debate as well as his mediation on Spinoza in his Autobiography. I explicate the work of ... More


Black Pilgrimage to Islam

Robert Dannin

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195300246
eISBN:
9780199850433
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300246.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This book offers an ethnographic study of African-American Muslims. Drawing on hundreds of interviews conducted over a period of several years, the author provides a look inside the little-understood ... More


Insurgent Domesticity: Race and Gender in Representations of NOI Women during the Cold War Era

Sylvia Chan-Malik

in Being Muslim: A Cultural History of Women of Color in American Islam

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781479850600
eISBN:
9781479881550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479850600.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

This chapter considers how the domestic spaces of Black American Muslim women were portrayed in photography, media, and literature during the height of the Cold War in the 1950s and 60s. The male ... More


The Appeal of Black Nationalism and the Promise of Prosperity

Ula Yvette Taylor

in The Promise of Patriarchy: Women and the Nation of Islam

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781469633930
eISBN:
9781469633954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469633930.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies

This chapter explores the Nation of Islam conversion of activists Sonia Sanchez and Gwendolyn Simmons, after the assassination of Minister Malcolm X. Why political activists found a political home in ... More


America Means Prison

Dan Berger

in Captive Nation: Black Prison Organizing in the Civil Rights Era

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9781469618241
eISBN:
9781469618265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469618241.003.0003
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter looks further at black bonding to confront racism and discrimination. By the 1950s black urban experience became entwined with black experience of confinement. It seemed that the ghetto ... More


Introduction

Robert Dannin

in Black Pilgrimage to Islam

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195300246
eISBN:
9780199850433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300246.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Islam

The journey taken by African-American Muslims and how they persisted in situations of slavery is often ignored as a significant element of American history. Testimonies and narratives about such ... More


Everywhere below Canada

Marcus Anthony Hunter and Zandria F. Robinson

in Chocolate Cities: The Black Map of American Life

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780520292826
eISBN:
9780520966178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520292826.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

Drawing on Malcolm X's provocative 1964 speech "The Ballot or the Bullet," this chapter follows the insight that everywhere below Canada is the South for black Americans. This chapter also provides ... More


Anglo-American Black Liberation

in Special Relations: The Americanization of Britain?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804773997
eISBN:
9780804777834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804773997.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter covers the density of links between black America in a decade of dramatic change and Britain at a critical transitional stage from a society of white hosts and black immigrants to one ... More


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