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Social security policy

Chak Kwan Chan, King Lun Ngok, and David Phillips

in Social policy in China: Development and well-being

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861348807
eISBN:
9781447303411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861348807.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter explains the welfare functions of communes and work units before China's economic reforms. It also describes the new social security measures which came about after 1978 such as old age ... More


Living standards in the UK

Demi Patsios, Marco Pomati, and Paddy Hillyard

in Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK: Vol. 2: The Dimensions of Disadvantage

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781447334224
eISBN:
9781447334309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447334224.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter provides an overview of a conceptual framework and analytical tool for measuring UK living standards (UK-LS). It aims to supplement and complement B-SEM and PSE poverty and social ... More


Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK: Vol. 2: The Dimensions of Disadvantage

Glen Bramley and Nick Bailey (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781447334224
eISBN:
9781447334309
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447334224.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

Based on the largest UK study of its kind ever commissioned in the UK, this book provides the most detailed national picture of poverty and social exclusion. Chapters consider a wide range of ... More


Measuring Wellbeing: A History of Italian Living Standards

Giovanni Vecchi

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199944590
eISBN:
9780190218850
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199944590.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

A journey back in time to discover how the Italians defeated hunger, poverty, and premature death; how they transformed the peninsula into a modern and hospitable country, and how they managed to ... More


Social Stratification and Income Inequality at the End of Apartheid

Jeremy Seekings and Nicoli Nattrass

in Class, Race, and Inequality in South Africa

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300108927
eISBN:
9780300128758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300108927.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter utilizes the 1993 Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development (PSLSD) survey to analyze social stratification and income inequality in South Africa at the end of the ... More


Did the Unemployed Constitute an Underclass?

Jeremy Seekings and Nicoli Nattrass

in Class, Race, and Inequality in South Africa

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300108927
eISBN:
9780300128758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300108927.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter asks whether some or all of the unemployed should be viewed as a distinct underclass. It argues that one segment of the unemployed can be identified as a discrete underclass, which ... More


Fifty years of poverty in the UK

Joanna Mack

in Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK: Vol. 2: The Dimensions of Disadvantage

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781447334224
eISBN:
9781447334309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447334224.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter examines fifty years of poverty measurement, in particular the development of deprivation-based measures from Townsend’s definition of being ‘excluded from ordinary patterns’ of ... More


Income Inequality at Apartheid's End

Jeremy Seekings and Nicoli Nattrass

in Class, Race, and Inequality in South Africa

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300108927
eISBN:
9780300128758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300108927.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter uses the 1993 Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development (PSLSD) survey to analyse the pattern of income inequality at the end of apartheid and on the eve of ... More


Poverty

Nicola Amendola and Fernando Salsano

in Measuring Wellbeing: A History of Italian Living Standards

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199944590
eISBN:
9780190218850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199944590.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Some commentators argue that greater economic growth implies less absolute poverty. This is wrong. If the economic development process is accompanied by an increase in inequality, this may prevent ... More


Conclusions and emerging themes

Glen Bramley and Nick Bailey

in Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK: Vol. 2: The Dimensions of Disadvantage

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781447334224
eISBN:
9781447334309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447334224.003.0015
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

Poverty as measured by material deprivation through lack of economic resources remains absolutely central to understanding the causation and patterning of most aspects of social exclusion and a wide ... More


The path to post-recession prosperity

Tamara Draut

in The squeezed middle: The pressure on ordinary workers in America and Britain

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9781447308942
eISBN:
9781447310822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447308942.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter argues that the political response to the current recession must ensure that the return to growth results in broad-based prosperity that benefits all workers. The single-minded focus on ... More


Inequality

Nicola Amendola

in Measuring Wellbeing: A History of Italian Living Standards

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199944590
eISBN:
9780190218850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199944590.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Any history of the wellbeing of the Italians that ignores the sphere of economic inequality would be incomplete and unsatisfactory. That is why this chapter presents a quantitative reconstruction of ... More


Wages and Welfare

Chris Miller

in Putinomics: Power and Money in Resurgent Russia

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781469640662
eISBN:
9781469640679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469640662.003.0006
Subject:
History, World Modern History

As Russia’s firms got more productive, living standards shot up. For one thing, companies started offering far more variety. The consumer paradise that advocates of a market economy had promised ... More


Nutrition

Marina Sorrentino

in Measuring Wellbeing: A History of Italian Living Standards

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199944590
eISBN:
9780190218850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199944590.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

The chapter focuses on how Italy’s economic growth enabled the spread of improvements in the diet of the Italian population. According to mid-nineteenth-century observers, nourishment was likely to ... More


Income

Alessandro Brunetti and Emanuele Felice

in Measuring Wellbeing: A History of Italian Living Standards

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199944590
eISBN:
9780190218850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199944590.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

The point was made by Robert F. Kennedy, brother of the U.S. president, in his famous speech of March 1968: the gross domestic product (GDP) of a country measures everything except what makes life ... More


The Job Creation Challenge: Across Developing Country Settings

Gordon Betcherman and Martin Rama

in Jobs For Development: Challenges and Solutions in Different Country Settings

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198754848
eISBN:
9780191816321
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198754848.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, Public and Welfare

This chapter introduces the framework underlying the 2013 World Development Report: Jobs, explains how it extends traditional approaches to employment, and summarizes how it has been applied to the ... More


Nutritional Deprivation after the Fighting: November 1918–July 1919

Mary Elisabeth Cox

in Hunger in War and Peace: Women and Children in Germany, 1914-1924

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198820116
eISBN:
9780191860171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198820116.003.0008
Subject:
History, Economic History, Social History

Germans were dismayed that the Allied blockade continued during armistice, and loudly protested the nutritional distress it created for women and children. Official reports of the German food supply ... More


Child Labor

Francesco Cinnirella and Gianni Toniolo

in Measuring Wellbeing: A History of Italian Living Standards

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199944590
eISBN:
9780190218850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199944590.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Child involvement in economic activity is pervasive in today’s less developed countries—over 260 million working children according to the latest reliable estimates. The evidence available suggests ... More


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