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A Brief History of Metabolic Measurement

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

This chapter describes the evolution of respirometry from Leonardo da Vinci's musings onwards. The works of Boyle, the brilliant and prophetic Mayow, and the well-intentioned but misguided Priestley ... More


Joseph Priestley, Enlightened Experimentalist

W. H. Brock

in Joseph Priestley, Scientist, Philosopher, and Theologian

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199215300
eISBN:
9780191706929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215300.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

Priestley's observations and experiments enabled others to interpret nature in a new way. This chapter reviews these observations and experiments covering electrostatics, optics, pneumatic chemistry, ... More


Conversations on Chemistry: Talk about Phlogiston in the Coffee House Society, 1780–1787

Jan Golinski

in Discussing Chemistry and Steam: The Minutes of a Coffee House Philosophical Society 1780-1787

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198515302
eISBN:
9780191705694
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515302.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter explores the Society's informed debates surrounding issues of chemistry and natural philosophy in the 1780s. It details the discussions on the role of phlogiston, an entity invoked by ... More


What Is A Chemical Element?: A Collection of Essays by Chemists, Philosophers, Historians, and Educators

Eric Scerri and Elena Ghibaudi (eds)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190933784
eISBN:
9780197508442
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190933784.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The term “element” is typically used in two distinct senses. First it is taken to mean isolated simple substances such as the green gas chlorine or the yellow solid sulphur. In some languages, ... More


A Chemical Couple

in Alchemical Mercury: A Theory of Ambivalence

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804760324
eISBN:
9780804772877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804760324.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter examines a portrait of Antoine Lavoisier and his wife, painted by Jacques-Louis David in 1788, in which Lavoisier presents himself as a dignified scientist. While the untidy desk of an ... More


Science in the Age of Sensibility: The Sentimental Empiricists of the French Enlightenment

Jessica Riskin

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226720784
eISBN:
9780226720852
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226720852.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Empiricism today implies the dispassionate scrutiny of facts. But in the French Enlightenment, empiricism was intimately bound up with sensibility. In what this book calls a “sentimental empiricism,” ... More


Introduction

Frederic Lawrence Holmes

in Meselson, Stahl, and the Replication of DNA: A History of "The Most Beautiful Experiment in Biology"

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300085402
eISBN:
9780300129663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300085402.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The main goal of this volume is to follow, in as full detail as the surviving documents and the memories of the participants permit, the investigative program that led Meselson and Stahl to perform ... More


Later years

I.S. Glass

in Nicolas-Louis De La Caille, Astronomer and Geodesist: South African Astronomical Observatory

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199668403
eISBN:
9780191749315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668403.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

La Caille returned to France via Mauritius and Reunion. He was received with acclaim at the Academy, where he gave several lectures on his Cape experiences. He published a map of the Cape which ... More


Science, Print, and Crossing Borders: Importing French Science Books into Britain, 1789–1815

Jonathan R. Topham (ed.)

in Geographies of Nineteenth-Century Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226487267
eISBN:
9780226487298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226487298.003.0013
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the idea of knowledge in transit and on the ways in which printed matter crossed borders. It analyzes several cases studies including Laplace's physics, Lavoisier's chemistry ... More


Languages of Science and Revolution

in Science in the Age of Sensibility: The Sentimental Empiricists of the French Enlightenment

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226720784
eISBN:
9780226720852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226720852.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter is concerned with the relations among sensibility, system-building, and revolution. The chapter studies two related disputes about language: the controversy surrounding Antoine Lavoisier ... More


“Nature Is the Great Experimenter”

Thomas A. Apel

in Feverish Bodies, Enlightened Minds: Science and the Yellow Fever Controversy in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780804797405
eISBN:
9780804799638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804797405.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

Chapter Three examines the investigators’ uses of the new chemistry of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. Lavoisier’s “chemical revolution” produced a Kuhnian paradigm shift that fundamentally altered ... More


The Many Questions Raised by the Dual Concept of “Element”

Eric R. Scerri

in What Is A Chemical Element?: A Collection of Essays by Chemists, Philosophers, Historians, and Educators

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190933784
eISBN:
9780197508442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190933784.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The article begins by asking whether contemporary chemists accept the dual meaning of the term “element” that has been discussed at various stages in the development of chemistry. It proceeds to ... More


From Simple Substance to Chemical Element

Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent

in What Is A Chemical Element?: A Collection of Essays by Chemists, Philosophers, Historians, and Educators

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190933784
eISBN:
9780197508442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190933784.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The introduction of the modern concept of chemical element has often been credited to Lavoisier. I will argue that despite the significant impact of the definition of elements as non-decompound ... More


The Changing Relation between Atomicity and Elementarity: From Lavoisier to Dalton

Marina P. Banchetti-Robino

in What Is A Chemical Element?: A Collection of Essays by Chemists, Philosophers, Historians, and Educators

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190933784
eISBN:
9780197508442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190933784.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Early modern efforts to reconceptualize atomicity as a chymical notion fell by the wayside during the chemical revolution, as Antoine Lavoisier’s desire to transform chemistry into a strictly ... More


Homberg’s Legacy

Lawrence M. Principe

in The Transmutations of Chymistry: Wilhelm Homberg and the Académie Royale des Sciences

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226700786
eISBN:
9780226700816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226700816.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The final chapter explores Homberg’s legacy for both chymistry and the Académie. His work was followed by many others around Europe. Some adopted his system, others mined his results, and others ... More


Organic Enlightenment

Meghan K. Roberts

in Sentimental Savants: Philosophical Families in Enlightenment France

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226384115
eISBN:
9780226384252
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226384252.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Even savants without biological children could practice sentimental paternalism. In the last decades of the eighteenth century, Antoine Lavoisier invested time and money into his experimental farm at ... More


Measuring the Fire of Life: A Brief History of Metabolic Measurement

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198830399
eISBN:
9780191868672
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830399.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

This chapter describes the evolution of respirometry from Leonardo da Vinci’s musings onwards. The works of Boyle, the brilliant and prophetic Mayow, and the well-intentioned but misguided Priestley ... More


Direct Calorimetry

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198830399
eISBN:
9780191868672
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830399.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

This chapter describes calorimetry or the direct measurement of heat production, a technique first used by Lavoisier and Paulze for measuring metabolic rates. Bomb calorimetry—a technique for ... More


A Tale of Two Countries: the Rise of the Steam Engine and the Caloric Theory of Heat

Jennifer Coopersmith

in Energy, the Subtle Concept: The discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716747
eISBN:
9780191800955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716747.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

The main cultural by-product of the French Revolution was the unprecedented rise in mathematics and science. Watt’s steam engine and the entrepreneurial skills of Boulton mark the start of the ... More


Lavoisier and the birth of modern chemistry

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Building on the discoveries of such scientists as Priestley and Cavendish, Lavoisier invalidated the concept of phlogiston, discovered respiration to be a form of combustion, and ultimately laid the ... More


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