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Unusual diffraction geometries

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Unusual diffraction geometries may seem a curiosity but may stimulate novel avenues of application. Not least they illustrate a diversity of diffraction‐measuring possibilities. Laue diffraction ... More


Intensities of plane waves in the transmission geometry

ANDRÉ AUTHIER

in Dynamical Theory of X-Ray Diffraction

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198528920
eISBN:
9780191713125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528920.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter is concerned with the transmission, or Laue, geometry, and an incident plane wave. Two cases are considered, Laue–Laue and Laue–Bragg. After describing the boundary conditions at the ... More


Making the most of difficult crystals — beamline and detector optimization

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The geometry of the crystallographic instrumentation is described with an emphasis on synchrotron radiation beamline setups in the hutch. The measurement principles of ‘signal to noise’ as well as ... More


X-rays and crystals

John Jenkin

in William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son: The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235209
eISBN:
9780191715631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235209.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

A 1912 letter reported a German experiment that appeared to show that X-rays were waves. William discussed it with his son, who then explained all the observed spots by supposing that X-rays falling ... More


Ray tracing in perfect crystals

ANDRÉ AUTHIER

in Dynamical Theory of X-Ray Diffraction

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198528920
eISBN:
9780191713125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528920.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter describes the propagation of wavefields inside the crystal close to the Bragg angle. It shows that the direction of propagation of packets of wavefields as obtained by their group ... More


Fundamental crystallography

Xiaodong Zou, Sven Hovmöller, and Peter Oleynikov

in Electron Crystallography: Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199580200
eISBN:
9780191731211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580200.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The basic concepts of crystallography, including unit cell, symmetry, crystal systems and origin specification are introduced. Bravais lattice, point groups, plane groups and space groups are ... More


Complementary diffraction methods

Dennis Sherwood and Jon Cooper

in Crystals, X-rays and Proteins: Comprehensive Protein Crystallography

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199559046
eISBN:
9780191595028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559046.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Many of the biological functions of proteins depend on hydrogen atoms, or protons. Whilst the X-ray diffraction data obtained from most protein crystals do not allow the positions of hydrogen atoms ... More


Diffraction by a three‐dimensional lattice

Dennis Sherwood and Jon Cooper

in Crystals, X-rays and Proteins: Comprehensive Protein Crystallography

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199559046
eISBN:
9780191595028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559046.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter describes the basis of X-ray diffraction by a three-dimensional crystal and introduces the Laue equations which describe the geometric conditions for constructive interference of X-rays ... More


Introduction to symmetry and diffraction

William Clegg

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter explores how a crystal structure and its diffraction pattern are related, with reference to aspects of symmetry. Pure translation symmetry is characteristic of crystal structures, ... More


Space-group determination

William Clegg

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter describes the factors involved in deciding which of the 230 space groups is correct for a particular crystal structure, based on crystallographic experiments and chemical knowledge. ... More


Insensitivity In Communicating With EmigréS

KLAUS HENTSCHEL

in The Mental Aftermath: The Mentality of German Physicists 1945-1949

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199205660
eISBN:
9780191709388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205660.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Immediate hardship in Germany contaminated communications between physicists at home and abroad. But their official or private reactions to emigrés were frequently clumsy and haughty, if not ... More


Electron diffraction (ED)

Xiaodong Zou, Sven Hovmöller, and Peter Oleynikov

in Electron Crystallography: Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199580200
eISBN:
9780191731211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580200.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Electron diffraction comes from the combined scattering from many atoms arranged in a crystal. Bragg’s law and the Ewald sphere explain where the diffraction spots will fall on a detector and when ... More


The basic principles and experimental configurations of neutron diffraction experiments

Nobuo Niimura and Alberto Podjarny

in Neutron Protein Crystallography: Hydrogen, Protons, and Hydration in Bio-macromolecules

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199578863
eISBN:
9780191725555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578863.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The basic principles and experimental configurations of neutron diffraction experiments are given in this chapter. First, the physics of neutrons and neutron diffraction, such as neutron-scattering ... More


1912: The Discovery Of X‐Ray Diffraction and the Birth of X‐Ray Analysis

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter tells the story of the discovery of X-ray diffraction and of its immediate aftermath. The scene is set in Munich, with the institutes of Groth, Röntgen, and Sommerfeld. The story starts ... More


Perfect Crystal Neutron Optics

Helmut Rauch and Samuel A. Werner

in Neutron Interferometry 2nd Edn: Lessons in Experimental Quantum Mechanics, Wave-Particle Duality, and Entanglement

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198712510
eISBN:
9780191780813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712510.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The perfect crystal, LLL-geometry, neutron interferometer is geometrically analogous to the classical Mach–Zehnder interferometer. Its operation depends in exquisite detail on the dynamical theory of ... More


Bragg’s Law: Diffraction

Brian Cantor

in The Equations of Materials

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198851875
eISBN:
9780191886683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851875.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The diffraction of X-rays is used as the main method for determining the atomic and molecular structures of inorganic and biological materials. The basic law of diffraction was discovered by Lawrence ... More


Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

André Authier

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

2012 marked the centenary of one of the most significant discoveries of the early twentieth century: the discovery of X-ray diffraction in March 1912 by Laue, Friedrich, and Knipping, and of the ... More


The Birth and Initial Exploitation of X-ray Diffraction

John Meurig Thomas

in Architects of Structural Biology: Bragg, Perutz, Kendrew, Hodgkin

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198854500
eISBN:
9780191888793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198854500.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

A non-mathematical account of the discovery of X-ray diffraction by von Laue and its use as a new kind of high-resolution microscopy by W. L. Bragg is given. There follows a simple explanation of how ... More


Symmetry and reflection conditions in reciprocal space

Paolo G. Radaelli

in Symmetry in Crystallography: Understanding the International Tables

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199550654
eISBN:
9780191775093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550654.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter focuses on symmetry in reciprocal space. It reviews the definitions of reciprocal space and dual (reciprocal) basis vectors (from Chapter 6), and presents the new concept of the ... More


Significance of the Discovery of X‐Ray Diffraction

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter stresses the significance of the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich, and Knipping, at the time of the discovery and afterwards. The discovery confirmed the wave nature of ... More


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