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The creation of the NPL Mathematics Division

Mary Croarken

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

In April 1945, the journal Nature announced that the National Physical Laboratory would ‘extend its activities by the establishment of a Mathematics Division’. The new Mathematics Division was ... More


The origins and development of the ACE project

B. Jack Copeland

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter details the history of the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) project. The story of the ACE begins with John Womersley's appointment as superintendent of the newly created Mathematics ... More


Proposed electronic calculator (1945)

Alan M. Turing

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0021
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents Alan M. Turing's report, ‘Proposed Electronic Calculator’. The report was submitted to the Executive Committee of the National Physical Laboratory in February 1946, under the ... More


Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Karl S. Matlin, Jane Maienschein, and Rachel A. Ankeny (eds)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This book explores why researchers since the mid-nineteenth century have spent time at the seaside, as well as what questions motivated their work and what opportunities appeared as a result of ... More


Pertinence of the Head

Stephen G. Miller

in The Berkeley Plato: From Neglected Relic to Ancient Treasure, An Archaeological Detective Story

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258334
eISBN:
9780520943599
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258334.003.0003
Subject:
Classical Studies, Ancient Greek, Roman, and Early Christian Philosophy

This chapter describes the pertinence of the head to the shaft. The acid treatment of the head has ruined the edges of the marble around the neck. The removal of two layers of adhesive from the ... More


Cambridge University

John Jenkin

in William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son: The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235209
eISBN:
9780191715631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235209.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

William entered Trinity College in 1881, enrolled for the Mathematical Tripos, and was accepted by its principal private tutor, Edward Routh. He studied little else, won several college prizes, and ... More


The Biological Century: The Cultural Importance of Ecological Process

John P. Herron

in Science and the Social Good: Nature, Culture, and Community, 1865-1965

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195383546
eISBN:
9780199870523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383546.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the life of Rachel Carson. In late summer of 1929, 22-year-old Rachel Carson arrived at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. A recent graduate ... More


Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book explores the conception, design, construction, use, and afterlife of ENIAC, the first general purpose digital electronic computer. ENIAC was created and tested at the University of ... More


Physics in Oxford, 1839-1939: Laboratories, Learning and College Life

Robert Fox and Graeme Gooday (eds)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567929
eISBN:
9780191718328
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567929.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book offers a new interpretation of pre-war physics at the University of Oxford, which was far more dynamic than most historians and physicists have been prepared to believe. It explains, on the ... More


Why Have Biologists Studied at the Seashore? The Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory

Jane Maienschein

in Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Biologists have travelled to the seashore since the mid nineteenth century, for a number of different reasons that have changed over time. Throughout, the diversity of organisms and the opportunities ... More


A Dual Mission: Research and Education as Critical Factors for the Scientific Integrity of the Marine Biological Laboratory

Kate Maccord

in Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

In 1888 the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) was founded with a dual mission: research and education. While other American marine stations founded around that time also attempted similarly dual ... More


Francis O. Schmitt: At the Intersection of Neuroscience and Squid

Kathryn Maxson Jones

in Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explores the career of neuroscientist Francis O. Schmitt (1903-1995): how his experimental research relied on marine organisms and marine laboratories, and more generally how this ... More


Microscopes and Moving Molecules: The Discovery of Kinesin at the Marine Biological Laboratory

Karl S. Matlin

in Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

In the late 1970s Nina Strömgren Allen and Robert Day Allen, working at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, discovered a type of video microscopy that enabled them to visually ... More


Hagfish and Vascular Biology: Why the Marine Model Matters

Marianne A. Grant and William C. Aird

in Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter focuses on the role of the hagfish as a model organism for understanding the evolutionary origins of human organ systems. While many invertebrates have blood vessels, none has a true ... More


Epilogue: The Future of Biological Research Will Be Found in the Oceans

Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

in Why Study Biology by the Sea?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226672762
eISBN:
9780226673097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226673097.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The history of the Marine Biological Laboratory provides insight as to why scientists have worked by the sea, including how this has influenced research and provided unexpected opportunities. Now ... More


Supreme position in British physics: The National Physical Laboratory and Cambridge, 1937–9

Graeme K. Hunter

in Light is a Messenger: The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529217
eISBN:
9780191712937
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529217.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Bragg took up the position of Director of the National Physical Laboratory in November 1937, succeeding Joseph Petavel. He was not the NPL's first choice for the job; with his very limited experience ... More


Where the Rivers End

Cheryl Colopy

in Dirty, Sacred Rivers: Confronting South Asia's Water Crisis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199845019
eISBN:
9780197563212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199845019.003.0024
Subject:
Environmental Science, Management of Land and Natural Resources

It’s not yet dawn. The Bon Bibi is anchored. Some members of the crew have risen and one has brought hot water to the dining room. I have some tea to warm me as I lean ... More


Early Exploitation

SEAN F. JOHNSTON

in Holographic Visions: A History of New Science

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198571223
eISBN:
9780191718908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198571223.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter turns from historical facts to artefacts. It explores how expertise spread and was exploited, emphasising the shifting mix of methodologies at play: where theoretical perspectives had ... More


Mechanical Physicists, the Millard Laboratory, and the Transition from Physics to Engineering

Tony Simcock

in Physics in Oxford, 1839-1939: Laboratories, Learning and College Life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567929
eISBN:
9780191718328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567929.003.05
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The Millard Laboratory at Trinity College was the principal epicentre of physics in collegiate Oxford, and the man with whom it is identified, Frederick John Jervis–Smith, university lecturer in ... More


Translating Ion Physics from Cambridge to Oxford: John Townsend and the Electrical Laboratory, 1900–24

Benoit Lelong

in Physics in Oxford, 1839-1939: Laboratories, Learning and College Life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567929
eISBN:
9780191718328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567929.003.06
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The postgraduate career of John Sealy Edward Townsend occurred in three places: Dublin, Cambridge, and Oxford. After graduating in 1890 at Trinity College, Dublin, Townsend spent the next five years ... More


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