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9 Interferometers

Michele Maggiore

in Gravitational Waves: Volume 1: Theory and Experiments

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570745
eISBN:
9780191717666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570745.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter describes the basic principle of interferometric GW detectors, and illustrates it with a Michelson interferometer. It discusses Fabry-Perot cavities, diffraction effects and gaussian ... More


Gravity's Ghost and Big Dog: Scientific Discovery and Social Analysis in the Twenty-First Century

Harry Collins

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226052298
eISBN:
9780226052328
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226052328.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Based in the sociology of scientific knowledge the book describes, in real time, two potential discoveries of gravitational waves, known as the Equinox Event and Big Dog. These were made by the LIGO ... More


Introduction: Big Dog Barks

Harry Collins

in Gravity's Ghost and Big Dog: Scientific Discovery and Social Analysis in the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226052298
eISBN:
9780226052328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226052328.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

A strong signal is seen by the laser intereferometer gravitational wave detectors. It is strong LIGO and Virgo’s data is compatible. The signal seems to come from the direction of Canis Major so is ... More


The Shadow of the Black Hole

John W. Moffat

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780190650728
eISBN:
9780197517383
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190650728.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The author visits one of the two Laser Interferometer Gravitational- Wave Observatory (LIGO) sites in the United States, at Hanford, Washington. This is where scientists are detecting gravitational ... More


Gravitational Waves: Volume 2: Astrophysics and Cosmology

Michele Maggiore

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198570899
eISBN:
9780191817182
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198570899.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

A comprehensive and detailed account of the physics of gravitational waves and their role in astrophysics and cosmology. The part on astrophysical sources of gravitational waves includes chapters on ... More


Quantum 20/20: Fundamentals, Entanglement, Gauge Fields, Condensates and Topology

Ian R. Kenyon

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198808350
eISBN:
9780191846052
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808350.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This text reviews fundametals and incorporates key themes of quantum physics. One theme contrasts boson condensation and fermion exclusivity. Bose–Einstein condensation is basic to superconductivity, ... More


Cosmic Ripples

Nicholas Mee

in The Cosmic Mystery Tour

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198831860
eISBN:
9780191869785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831860.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Gravitational waves generated by violent collisions in the distant universe were recently discovered by the LIGO detector. Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein’s theory of general ... More


Lovely LISA

Nicholas Mee

in The Cosmic Mystery Tour

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198831860
eISBN:
9780191869785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831860.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

The European Space Agency (ESA) has plans to build a space-based gravitational wave detector known as LISA. The recent LISA Pathfinder mission has demonstrated that the technology required for LISA ... More


Some Instruments of Macro-Physics

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Some ancient, old, and current ways to look at the sky. Star map of Senenmut, Ulugh Beg’s sextant, Galileo’s telescope, Penzias and Wilson’s microwave antenna, NASA’s COBE satellite, and LIGO’s ... More


The Direct Detection of Gravitational Waves

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Gravitational waves emitted by black hole mergers. The first LIGO event: GW150917, the coalescence of two black holes of twenty nine and thirty six solar masses into one of “only” sixty two. The ... More


Cosmic Spacequakes

Nicholas Mee

in The Cosmic Mystery Tour

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198831860
eISBN:
9780191869785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831860.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

The fourth gravitational wave signal detected by LIGO GW170817 coincided with a short gamma ray burst and these signals have been interpreted as the result of a binary neutron star merger. It is ... More


GWs from compact binaries. Observations

Michele Maggiore

in Gravitational Waves: Volume 2: Astrophysics and Cosmology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198570899
eISBN:
9780191817182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198570899.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

A discussion of the first direct detections of GWs from coalescing binaries at advanced LIGO. Discoveries of GW150914 and GW151226. Evaluation of the statistical significance. Astrophysical and ... More


Gravitational-Wave Detection

Harry Collins

in Gravity's Ghost and Big Dog: Scientific Discovery and Social Analysis in the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226052298
eISBN:
9780226052328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226052328.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

A brief history of gravitational wave detection


Neutron stars

Michele Maggiore

in Gravitational Waves: Volume 2: Astrophysics and Cosmology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198570899
eISBN:
9780191817182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198570899.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Observation of neutron stars as pulsars. Pulsar demography. Magnetars. GW emission from neutron stars. Normal modes of neuton stars. CFS instability; r-mode instability. GWs from the post-merger NS ... More


Gravitational waves

Steven Carlip

in General Relativity: A Concise Introduction

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198822158
eISBN:
9780191861215
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198822158.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In the weak field approximation, the Einstein field equations can be solved, and lead to the prediction of gravitational waves. After showing that gravitational radiation depends on changing ... More


Quantum measurement

Ian R. Kenyon

in Quantum 20/20: Fundamentals, Entanglement, Gauge Fields, Condensates and Topology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198808350
eISBN:
9780191846052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808350.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Heisenberg’s back action and Robertson’s intrinsic uncertainty are presented. von Neumann’s analysis of quantum measurement is recounted. Advanced LIGO is used as an example of quantum measurement: ... More


General Relativity

Nicholas Manton and Nicholas Mee

in The Physical World: An Inspirational Tour of Fundamental Physics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198795933
eISBN:
9780191837111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198795933.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents the physical motivation for general relativity, derives the Einstein field equation and gives concise derivations of the main results of the theory. It begins with the ... More


The Dark Side

Steven E. Vigdor

in Signatures of the Artist: The Vital Imperfections That Make Our Universe Habitable

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198814825
eISBN:
9780191852954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814825.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 6 deals with the remaining mysteries in cosmology—dark matter, dark energy, and inflationary expansion—and the experiments aimed at solving them. It reviews the evidence for dark matter, and ... More


The Biggest Ears in the Sky: LIGO

John W. Moffat

in The Shadow of the Black Hole

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780190650728
eISBN:
9780197517383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190650728.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

At a press conference on February 11, 2016, David Reitz, LIGO Executive Director, announced, “We did it!” They detected gravitational waves for the first time. Both LIGO sites, in Washington state ... More


LIGO/Virgo Listens to Neutron Stars

John W. Moffat

in The Shadow of the Black Hole

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780190650728
eISBN:
9780197517383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190650728.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

On August 8, 2017, LIGO/Virgo detected the merging of two neutron stars 130 million light years away. Just 1.7 seconds later, the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope received an optical signal—a short ... More


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