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The Chairman “On Trial”

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0020
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After leaving office in January 1977, Kissinger never held an official government post again. A few reasons for this are illustrated in this chapter. Despite the fact that his career as a ... More


Looking Outward

Ryan M. Irwin

in Gordian Knot: Apartheid and the Unmaking of the Liberal World Order

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199855612
eISBN:
9780199979882
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199855612.003.0006
Subject:
History, Political History, World Modern History

Divided into three sections, this chapter explains how the apartheid debate changed during the late 1960s. The first section opens by looking at the murder of South African Prime Minister Hendrik ... More


The French Factor in U.S. Foreign Policy during the Nixon-Pompidou Period

Marc Trachtenberg

in The Cold War and After: History, Theory, and the Logic of International Politics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691152028
eISBN:
9781400842490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691152028.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter discusses relations between France and the United States under the Nixon administration. When Nixon took office as president in early 1969, he and his national security advisor Henry ... More


The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Jussi M. Hanhimaki

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Henry Kissinger dominated American foreign relations like no other figure in recent history. He negotiated an end to American involvement in the Vietnam War, opened relations with Communist China, ... More


Building the House (1973–1977)

Simon J. Nuttall

in European Political Co-operation

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198273189
eISBN:
9780191684005
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273189.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This chapter discusses the accomplishments and challenges faced by the European Political Co-operation (EPC) from 1973 to 1977. The EPC reached its first high in July 1973 when the Copenhagen Report ... More


Nixon's Back Channel to Moscow: Confidential Diplomacy and Détente

Richard A. Moss

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780813167879
eISBN:
9780813167909
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813167879.001.0001
Subject:
History, Political History

The changing international environment of the 1960s made it possible to attain détente, a relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Back-channel diplomacy—confidential ... More


The War after the War: The Struggle for Credibility during America's Exit from Vietnam

Johannes Kadura

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801453960
eISBN:
9781501703799
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801453960.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This book offers a fresh interpretation of American strategy in the wake of the cease-fire that began in Vietnam on January 28, 1973. The U.S. exit from Vietnam continues to be important in ... More


The Aspiring Statesman

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Kissinger's transition from Harvard professor to Richard Nixon's security adviser has been an issue with many critics, who questioned his credentials for the said position. To be able to understand ... More


Kissinger, Nixon, and the Challenges of ’69

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Both Kissinger and Nixon wanted to ensure that the United States remained able to play a central role in international affairs. This role, however, was challenged from numerous directions. In this ... More


Bombs and Back Channels

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Back channels—confidential channels of communication between two countries' leaders—had been deemed necessary as ways of exchanging views and negotiating deals. February 1969 stands out as one of the ... More


Negotiating in the Shadow of War

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter illustrates the negotiations that occurred between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho to settle an end to the Vietnam War. However, by the spring of 1970 no such agreement was yet in sight. The ... More


Crises and Opportunities

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter presents a series of crises that Kissinger and Nixon faced in the Middle East and Latin America. In Cuba, the Soviets were apparently building a submarine base. In Chile, despite the ... More


Breakthroughs

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Through Pakistani Ambassador Agha Hilaly, Zhou Enlai, the Chinese premier was able to send his message to Kissinger regarding his government's willingness to have a direct meeting or discussions with ... More


The First Test: Triangular Diplomacy and the Indo-Pakistani War

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Kissinger's response to the Indo-Pakistani-Bengali crisis shows how inadequately his grand design—the triangular diplomacy and détente—fit with the realities of regional developments in South Asia. ... More


“The Week That Changed the World”

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The frequent forays to Beijing in 1972 were an indication of the significance that Kissinger placed on the new relationship with the People's Republic of China. The media called it a “journey of ... More


High Stakes: Triangulation, Moscow, and Vietnam

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

During March 1972, two major issues occupied Nixon's attention: the upcoming Moscow summit and the Vietnam situation. He was worried that the presummit expectations could lessen the value of its ... More


Exiting Vietnam

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

In the long series of negotiations with Le Duc Tho, Kissinger informed Nixon that he had hammered out an acceptable agreement that could end America's longest war by the end of the year, a crowning ... More


Highs and Lows

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After the conclusion of the Paris Agreements, Nixon became increasingly dependent on Kissinger for setting the overall direction of U.S foreign policy. Despite the dark shadow that Watergate laid ... More


Secretary of State

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter highlights one of Henry Kissinger's achievements—to become the first Jewish non-native-born secretary of state of America. It illustrates the story of how Kissinger's appointment as the ... More


Unilateral Advantage: The October War and Shuttle Diplomacy

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The October War and its resolution, particularly the shuttle diplomacy that followed, cemented Kissinger's reputation as a skillful negotiator. It offers an excellent opportunity for evaluating ... More


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