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Induction, Analogy, and a Future State: Hume's “Guide of Life”

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Although there is considerable disagreement among commentators about the extent of Hume's skeptical commitments on the subject of induction, most are agreed that what he has to say has little or ... More


Reasoning about morals from Butler to Hume

Aaron Garrett

in Philosophy and Religion in Enlightenment Britain: New Case Studies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199227044
eISBN:
9780191739309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227044.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

In this chapter it is argued that Hume’s stress on experiment in moral philosophy has one of its primary sources in Butler’s criticisms of Clarke’s moral rationalism and his arguments for a moral ... More


Sentimentalism before Hume

Michael L. Frazer

in The Enlightenment of Sympathy: Justice and the Moral Sentiments in the Eighteenth Century and Today

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195390667
eISBN:
9780199866687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390667.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter consists of an overview of the work of the three British philosophers from the first half of the eighteenth century whose work most influenced the later sentimentalists: Francis ... More


Butler on Virtue, Self-Interest, and Human Nature

Ralph Wedgwood

in Morality and Self-Interest

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195305845
eISBN:
9780199851539
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305845.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In his Sermons, Joseph Butler argued for a series of extraordinarily subtle and perceptive claims about the relations between virtue and self-interest. Unfortunately, there has been a great deal of ... More


Mr. Barratt on ‘The Suppression of Egoism ’

Henry Sidgwick

in Essays on Ethics and Method

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250234
eISBN:
9780191598432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250231.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In his reply to Barratt's criticisms of his Methods of Ethics, Sidgwick states that Barratt misapprehends his position by overlooking the fact that he reviews various methods of ethics from a neutral ... More


The Mighty Intellect: The Self as Focus in Hazlitt's Theory

Uttara Natarajan

in Hazlitt and the Reach of Sense: Criticism, Morals, and the Metaphysics of Power

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198184379
eISBN:
9780191674235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198184379.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism, Criticism/Theory

This chapter compares the work of Hazlitt (Essay on the Principles of Human Action) and Joseph Butler (Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel, 1726), and discusses them in terms of resisting ... More


From Fénelon to Hume

Christopher Brooke

in Philosophic Pride: Stoicism and Political Thought from Lipsius to Rousseau

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691152080
eISBN:
9781400842414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691152080.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter views a series of philosophical exchanges in the eighteenth century, which showcases the back and forth between plausibly Stoic and Epicurean concerns and arguments. It first takes a ... More


Deliberative Conflict: Some Recent Philosophical Concepts

Nicholas White

in Individual and Conflict in Greek Ethics

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250593
eISBN:
9780191598661
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250592.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Kantian and Hegelian responses to Greek ethics have been carried on—against the backdrop of Joseph Butler, J. S. Mill, Henry Sidgwick, T. H. Green, and others—right through the Twentieth Century. ... More


Transition (Butler Dismissed)

Galen Strawson

in Locke on Personal Identity: Consciousness and Concernment

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161006
eISBN:
9781400851843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161006.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter examines John Locke's theory of personal identity, which he has defined in terms of the reach of consciousness in beings who qualify as persons (being in particular fully self-conscious, ... More


Missions and Missiology from the 1760s

Bob Tennant

in Corporate Holiness: Pulpit Preaching and the Church of England Missionary Societies, 1760-1870

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199567850
eISBN:
9780191747366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199567850.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Church History

This chapter surveys the missiology and administration of the SPG in the second half of the eighteenth century. It identifies Joseph Butler as the chief philosophical source of the Society’s doctrine ... More


The History of the History of Ethics and Emblematic Passages

Aaron Garrett

in Philosophy, Rights and Natural Law: Essays in Honour of Knud Haakonssen

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781474449229
eISBN:
9781474460200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474449229.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter first considers the way that “emblematic passages” – passages taken to be emblematic of a philosopher’s import – function as an organizing device in the history of philosophy, and ... More


Preaching Liberty: Orphans, Slaves, and Citizenship, 1760–1800

Bob Tennant

in Corporate Holiness: Pulpit Preaching and the Church of England Missionary Societies, 1760-1870

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199567850
eISBN:
9780191747366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199567850.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Church History

This chapter, which gives special attention to the SPCK, describes how, through the advocacy of Edward Bentham and Josiah Tucker, Butler’s ideas gained ground in building new theories of charity, ... More


Translating Resentment

Aaron T. Looney

in Vladimir Jankélévitch: The Time of Forgiveness

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780823262960
eISBN:
9780823266654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823262960.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter concentrates on the specific relations between morality and emotion and between reason and passion, which, expressed biblically, involves a hunger and thirst for justice. Ressentiment ... More


Introduction

Galen Strawson

in Locke on Personal Identity: Consciousness and Concernment

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161006
eISBN:
9781400851843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161006.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This book defends John Locke's account of personal identity, first published in 1694, against claims that it is blatantly circular and inconsistent. Joseph Butler and Thomas Reid were the main ... More


Gratitude in the Early Eighteenth Century

Ashraf H. A. Rushdy

in Philosophies of Gratitude

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780197526866
eISBN:
9780197526897
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197526866.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter explores the writings of four philosophers who were either directly or implicitly responding to the philosophers of the seventeenth century discussed in the previous chapter. The chapter ... More


The British Moral Tradition: Conscience

Ashraf H.A. Rushdy

in After Injury: A Historical Anatomy of Forgiveness, Resentment, and Apology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780190851972
eISBN:
9780190852009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190851972.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that British moralist philosophers of the eighteenth century—especially Joseph Butler and Adam Smith—developed a model of what resentment as a response to injury was, what it ... More


Multiple Ultimate Ends, or Only One? The British Moralist Debate

Michael B. Gill

in Humean Moral Pluralism

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198714033
eISBN:
9780191782480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198714033.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Most British moral philosophers of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries believed that morality was based on several different ultimate principles. Particularly common was the view that ... More


Forgiveness and the range of resentment

John Lippitt

in Love's Forgiveness: Kierkegaard, Resentment, Humility, and Hope

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198861836
eISBN:
9780191894718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198861836.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies

This chapter introduces some key questions about forgiveness, its primary focus being the vexed issue of what the precise relationship is between forgiveness and resentment (and related emotions). ... More


Historians of Ethics

Thomas Hurka

in British Ethical Theorists from Sidgwick to Ewing

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199233625
eISBN:
9780191792694
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233625.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Discusses the school as commentators on earlier moral philosophers. Many found Plato’s and Aristotle’s views excessively egoistic, both foundationally and in the psychology they ascribe to the ... More


Four Rehabilitations of Conscience and Connection with Sentiment: Eighteenth Century

Richard Sorabji

in Moral Conscience through the Ages: Fifth Century BCE to the Present

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199685547
eISBN:
9780191765704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199685547.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The reliance of conscience on custom was criticised by Montaigne, Hobbes and Locke. In the 18th century, Bishop Butler defended its authority with an argument which could have been borrowed by ... More


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