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Cicero's Philosophy of History

Matthew Fox

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211920
eISBN:
9780191705854
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211920.001.0001
Subject:
Classical Studies, Ancient Greek, Roman, and Early Christian Philosophy

Cicero has long been seen to embody the values of the Roman Republic. This study of Cicero's use of history reveals that rather than promoting his own values, Cicero uses historical representation to ... More


Cicero from Enlightenment to Idealism

Matthew Fox

in Cicero's Philosophy of History

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211920
eISBN:
9780191705854
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211920.003.0010
Subject:
Classical Studies, Ancient Greek, Roman, and Early Christian Philosophy

The chapter centres on the detailed reading of a little-known treatise on Cicero, written in Latin by the Enlightenment thinker, John Toland. His treatise, Cicero Illustratus, presents Cicero as a ... More


The meaning of 1689: politics and theology, 1694–1700

Jeffrey R. Wigelsworth

in Deism in Enlightenment England: Theology, Politics, and Newtonian Public Science

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719078729
eISBN:
9781781703304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719078729.003.0002
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

The arrival and coronation of William III were a cause for great optimism and trepidation in the realms of English religion and politics. John Toland believed that the Revolutionary Settlement of ... More


Toland, Leibniz, and Active Matter

Stewart Duncan

in Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume VI

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199659593
eISBN:
9780191745218
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659593.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Early in the eighteenth century Leibniz had several interactions with John Toland. These included discussions of materialism, which culminated with the consideration of Toland’s 1704 Letters to ... More


Toland and the moral teaching of the gospel

Laurent Jaffro

in Philosophy and Religion in Enlightenment Britain: New Case Studies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199227044
eISBN:
9780191739309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227044.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

According to John Toland, the only intelligible content of the Gospel is the commendation of mutual love as a social virtue. The chapter situates this claim in the context of Toland’s rhetorical use ... More


Religious Philosophers and Speculative Atheists

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Hume's early critics strongly associated the skepticism of the Treatise with “atheistic” or anti‐Christian intentions. Moreover, they took Clarke's philosophy to be a particularly obvious and ... More


‘A complete history of priestcraft’: The Druids and the origins of ancient virtue

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0010
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter explores in detail John Toland's intellectual transactions with Lord Robert Molesworth, one of the commonwealth politicians in his circle, in order to allow a more reflective ... More


Publishing reason: John Toland and print and scribal communities

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter examines the role of John Toland in the print and scribal communities. Toland did more than simply read and write books: he was a key agent in disseminating ideas around the elite salons ... More


Editing the republic: Milton, Harrington and the Williamite monarchy, 1698–1714

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0005
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter focuses on John Toland's efforts to defend the sovereignty of reason in politics by undertaking the adventurous project of republishing the canonical works of the commonwealth tradition ... More


Reading Scripture: the reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter examines how John Toland's books, particularly his Christianity not mysterious, worked in the public sphere, explaining that this book was criticised as the most arrogant and impudent ... More


Locating John Toland

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This introductory chapter discusses the theme of this book, which is about the republican political thought of free-thinker John Toland. The first part deals with what we might call the material and ... More


Atheism under Cover: Esoteric Communication on Hume's Title Pages

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Both the epigrams that Hume uses on the title‐pages of the Treatise of Human Nature are very significant and reveal his freethinking and irreligious aims and intentions.. More specifically, the ... More


De studio theologia: patristic erudition and the attack on Scripture

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0009
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter discusses John Toland's religious thoughts and his invocation of the authority of erudition, explaining that Toland's ambition was to deconstruct the credibility of clerical knowledge, ... More


Anglia libera: Protestant liberties and the Hanoverian succession, 1700–14

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter examines John Toland's collaboration with elite Whig politicians as a leading defender of Protestant liberty, activities which resulted in the vindication of the legitimacy of the ... More


Respublica mosaica: imposters, legislators and civil religion

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter focuses on the activities of John Toland under Sophia of Hanover, his intimacy with whom Toland used as a theatre for the display of his arguments. He advanced a clear and profound ... More


Writing enlightenment

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0011
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the republican political thought of free-thinker John Toland, which has shown that the challenges which he posed to religious commonplaces were ... More


‘The traffic of books’: libraries, friends and conversation

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0002
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

Toland's working library had about one hundred and fifty volumes, including a number of foreign-language works. Many of his books, by a variety of continental scholars, formed the basis for ... More


Sapere aude: ‘commonwealth’ politics under George I, 1714–22

Justin Champion

in Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719057144
eISBN:
9781781700259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719057144.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter discusses the activities of John Toland under George I. After the disastrous electoral defeats of 1710, Toland focused his energies on defending the succession and remaining vigilant ... More


Enthusiasm and Historicism: Mosaic Law and the Narration of History

Jordana Rosenberg

in Critical Enthusiasm: Capital Accumulation and the Transformation of Religious Passion

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199764266
eISBN:
9780199895359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764266.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Literature, Religion and Society

The central claim of Chapter One is that much early eighteenth-century historicist thought has been woefully overlooked because its historicist logic is couched in the language of religious ... More


The Invention of Jewish Christianity: From Early Christian Heresiology to John Toland’s Nazarenus

Matt Jackson-Mccabe

in Jewish Christianity: The Making of the Christianity-Judaism Divide

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780300180138
eISBN:
9780300182378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300180138.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This chapter explains why Irish freethinker John Toland, in eighteenth-century London, began to reclassify groups long categorized as heresy as “Jewish Christianity.” More specifically, it argues ... More


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