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Free Will and Natural Laws

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Naturalistic approaches to explaining the living world led to intense controversies over whether free will and consciousness could be explained away as illusions in a mechanistic brain. Huxley and ... More


The Uniformity of Natural Laws

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

One of the most basic elements of Victorian (and, indeed, modern) scientific practice was the expectation that nature functioned according to fixed laws, which never varied in time or place. This ... More


The Limits of Science

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

One of the most contentious issues with which the emerging naturalism had to grapple was the question of what, if anything, was beyond science’s grasp. Both naturalists and theists accused each other ... More


The Goals of Science Education: The Working Men’s College

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The myth of inevitable conflict between science and religion grew out of a genuine battleground - the control of educational institutions in Britain. Huxley and the scientific naturalists were ... More


Religious Lives

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This introductory chapter describes Maxwell’s and Huxley’s backgrounds, particularly the formation of their views on and experience with religion. It shows the variety of “religion” present in the ... More


Analogy: The Physics and Poetics of Analogy

Andrea Henderson

in Algebraic Art: Mathematical Formalism and Victorian Culture

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198809982
eISBN:
9780191860140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198809982.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism

Analogy was a crucial conceptual tool for Victorian natural philosophers, who regarded the physical world less in terms of material bodies than formal relationships. Thus, even as they aimed for ... More


Intellectual Freedom

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The previous chapter laid the foundation for the argument that the central controversy in the control of Victorian science education was not religion, but rather sectarianism and dogmatism. Closer ... More


Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Matthew Stanley

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

During the Victorian period science shifted from being practiced in a theistic context to a naturalistic context. This book examines the foundations of that change. It is generally thought that this ... More


Mechanization of physics

JESPER LÜTZEN

in Mechanistic Images in Geometric Form: Heinrich Hertz's 'Principles of Mechanics'

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567370
eISBN:
9780191717925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567370.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

For Heinrich Hertz and most of his contemporaries and precursors from the 17th century on, mechanics was not just one among many more recent areas of physics. It was the basic discipline of physics. ... More


What to Do If You Cannot Establish a Theory: Maxwell’s Three Methods

Peter Achinstein

in Evidence and Method: Scientific Strategies of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199921850
eISBN:
9780199332892
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199921850.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses three methodologies proposed by James Clerk Maxwell that can be used in situations where there is insufficient evidence to establish a theory, or indeed, in some cases, no ... More


Stress, Selves, and Subjectivity

Daniel Brown

in Hopkins' Idealism: Philosophy, Physics, Poetry

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198183532
eISBN:
9780191674051
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198183532.003.0009
Subject:
Literature, Poetry, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter examines English poet Gerald Manley Hopkins' thoughts on the concepts of stress, selves, and subjectivity. It explains that Hopkins used the field model to represent being or stress not ... More


The Works of the Lord

Roger Wagner and Andrew Briggs

in The Penultimate Curiosity: How Science Swims in the Slipstream of Ultimate Questions

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198747956
eISBN:
9780191810909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747956.003.0049
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter presents the views of James Clerk Maxwell. For instance, in his inaugural lecture at King’s College London, he claimed that ‘As physical science advances we see more and more that the ... More


The Surprising Ubiquity of the Samuelson Configuration: Paul Samuelson and the Natural Sciences

James B. Cooper and Thomas Russell

in Samuelsonian Economics and the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199298839
eISBN:
9780191711480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298839.003.0021
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter appraises one aspect of how Samuelson adopted the methods of physics for economics. Samuelson is considered a leader in adopting the concepts of optimization with constraints to ... More


Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Carlo Cercignani

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570646
eISBN:
9780191717949
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570646.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book looks at the life and personality, the scientific and philosophical work of Ludwig Boltzmann, an Austrian physicist who made significant contributions to the development of the atomic ... More


Two Experiments in Probabilistic Thinking: Maxwell’s “Demon” and Eliot’s Daniel Deronda

Tina Young Choi

in Victorian Contingencies: Experiments in Literature, Science, and Play

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2022
ISBN:
9781503629288
eISBN:
9781503629769
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503629288.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

James Clerk Maxwell and George Eliot advanced probabilistic approaches to describe invisible phenomena to which they could not apply more traditional empirical methods. Maxwell asserted that the ... More


Models and Mechanisms: Physical Understanding in the Nineteenth Century

Henk W. de Regt

in Understanding Scientific Understanding

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780190652913
eISBN:
9780190652944
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190652913.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter analyzes the role of mechanical modeling in nineteenth-century physics, showing how precisely mechanical models were used to enhance scientific understanding. It discusses the work and ... More


Kinetic theory before Boltzmann

CARLO CERCIGNANI

in Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570646
eISBN:
9780191717949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570646.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The first atomic theory is credited to Democritus of Abdera, who lived in the 5th century BC. The actual development of the kinetic theory of gases accordingly took place much later, in the 19th ... More


Time’s Arrow and Statistical Uncertainty in Physics and Philosophy

Theodore M. Porter

in The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780691208428
eISBN:
9780691210520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691208428.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores how German economists and statisticians of the historical school viewed the idea of social or statistical law as the product of confusion between spirit and matter or, ... More


Experiments of Thought

Roger Wagner and Andrew Briggs

in The Penultimate Curiosity: How Science Swims in the Slipstream of Ultimate Questions

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198747956
eISBN:
9780191810909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747956.003.0047
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter focusses on James Clerk Maxwell, who at age 14 produced a scientific paper that was read to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. A few years later it was followed up by a second paper, ‘On ... More


Problematization of the concept of force

JESPER LÜTZEN

in Mechanistic Images in Geometric Form: Heinrich Hertz's 'Principles of Mechanics'

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567370
eISBN:
9780191717925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567370.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The most remarkable feature of the physical content of Heinrich Hertz's book Principles of Mechanics is that it is a mechanics without forces. The concept of force and, in particular, of gravitation ... More


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