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Experimental Natural Philosophy

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity 1210-1685

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199296446
eISBN:
9780191711985
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296446.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter deals with experimental philosophy, as represented in Gilbert on magnetism, Hobbes on the air pump, and Newton on the production of the spectrum. It is shown that experimental philosophy ... More


The Demise of Chronology

Jed Z. Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold

in Newton and the Origin of Civilization

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154787
eISBN:
9781400845187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154787.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter continues the discussion of critique’s of Isaac Newton’s The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. Among these was by Arthur Bedford, whose main objection to Newton’s work, even more than its ... More


ISAAC NEWTON: RATIONALISING THE UNIVERSE

I.S. GLASS

in Revolutionaries of the Cosmos: The Astro-Physicists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199550258
eISBN:
9780191718700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550258.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter begins by discussing Isaac Newton's biography and private life. It notes some of Newton's traits, which allowed him to face all the hurdles that came his way. It investigates how he ... More


Isaac Newton on Prophecies and Idolatry

Jed Z. Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold

in Newton and the Origin of Civilization

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154787
eISBN:
9781400845187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154787.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

On February 9, 1674/5, Isaac Newton left Cambridge for London, remaining there some five weeks. His main purpose was procuring a Royal dispensation from the statutory requirement of Trinity College ... More


The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

It was around Newton's Principia that most of the issues in eighteenth‐century natural philosophy hinged. The chapter explores the differences between the prevailing cosmological system, that of ... More


Interpreting Words

Jed Z. Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold

in Newton and the Origin of Civilization

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154787
eISBN:
9781400845187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154787.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

More than three decades separate Isaac Newton’s explorations of astronomical chronology and his youthful engagement with problems of perception and measurement. By the time of his first computations ... More


The Enigma of Newton’s Alchemy: The Historical Reception

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses studies on Newton's alchemy. By the time of his death in 1727, Newton had already become an icon of reason in an age of light, recognized for discovering the laws governing ... More


The War on Newton in England

Jed Z. Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold

in Newton and the Origin of Civilization

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154787
eISBN:
9781400845187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154787.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter describes the anticipation surrounding the publication of Isaac Newton’s The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. The willingness of publisher Jacob Tonson to fork out a sizeable sum of money ... More


The Young Thaumaturge

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the young Newton from his education at the Free Grammar School in Grantham during the 1650s up to his student years at Trinity College, Cambridge, beginning in 1661, in order to ... More


Publication and Reaction

Jed Z. Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold

in Newton and the Origin of Civilization

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154787
eISBN:
9781400845187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154787.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter considers the events surrounding the publication of Isaac Newton’s The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms after his death in 1727. Newton’s indictment of Antonio Conti as the false friend, ... More


Numbers

David M. Armstrong

in Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199590612
eISBN:
9780191723391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590612.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

An account is given of the Forrest‐Armstrong theory of number (Peter Forrest). Natural numbers are argued to be relations holding between a certain property and a certain mereological whole (black ... More


Vibrations and Subtle Fluids

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter introduces the vibration theory, which was unable to dethrone the doctrine of animal spirit. It discusses Isaac Newton's “aether,” which supposedly encompassed the universe and ... More


Problems of Authority and Language in Newton’s Chymistry: The Concept of the Adept

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter traces a host of related linguistic and interpretive issues that emerge from Newton's self-identification as a would-be adept. From the beginning of his serious chymical studies in the ... More


Religion, Ancient Wisdom, and Newton’s Alchemy

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter analyzes several related themes, considering, for example, the relationship between Newton's exegesis of biblical prophecy and his method of interpreting the textual riddles presented by ... More


Optics and Matter: Newton, Boyle, and Scholastic Mixture Theory

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter provides a sustained treatment of the self-styled English “naturalist” Robert Boyle, and his contribution to Newton's optical research. It is little appreciated that Boyle's analytical ... More


The Fortunes of Raymundus: Newton’s Late Florilegia

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0013
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines Newton's take on the substantial alchemical corpus ascribed to the high medieval Mallorcan philosopher Ramon Lull. It begins with a brief consideration of the Epistola ad ... More


The Shadow of a Noble Experiment: Newton’s Laboratory Records to 1696

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0014
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter deals with Newton's experimental notebooks, containing dated chymical laboratory records from 1678 to 1696. Beyond the glassware and ceramic implements described in these experimental ... More


The Quest for Sophic Sal Ammoniac

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0015
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter begins with a survey of the very early material in Newton's “master notebook,” CU Add. 3975 along with Boston Medical Library B MS c41 c. It then performs a systematic examination of CU ... More


Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, Alchemical Collaborator

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0017
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses Newton's collaborative chymical project with Nicolas Fatio de Duillier in 1693. By examining Fatio's hitherto unstudied letter to Newton from the summer of 1693 in conjunction ... More


The Ghost of Sendivogius: Niter, Sulfur, Fermentation, and Affinity

William R. Newman

in Newton the Alchemist

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691174877
eISBN:
9780691185033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174877.003.0021
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter builds on Newton's increasing interest in sulfur, placing his theories in the context of developments within the chymical community of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth ... More


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