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Into the Gulf

Jeremy Salt

in The Unmaking of the Middle East: A History of Western Disorder in Arab Lands

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255517
eISBN:
9780520934757
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255517.003.0013
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter examines issues related to the Iran–Iraq War from 1980 to 1988. This conflict was led by Ayatullah Ruhullah Khumayni of Iran and Saddam Hussein al Tikriti of Iraq, which eventually led ... More


Towards a New Relationship, 1979–1984

Steven Hurst

in The United States and Iraq since 1979: Hegemony, Oil and War

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748627677
eISBN:
9780748672103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748627677.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

The Iranian Revolution undermined America's hegemonic position in the Persian Gulf, transforming Iran from America's proxy into the primary regional threat to American interests. The Carter and ... More


Social Structure, Ethnicity, and Military Effectiveness: Iraq, 1980–2004

Timothy D. Hoyt

in Creating Military Power: The Sources of Military Effectiveness

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804753999
eISBN:
9780804768092
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804753999.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter investigates the effect of government policies intended to control internal division on overall military effectiveness. It specifically addresses the case of Iraq from 1980 to 2004. This ... More


The 1980s: Developing Hostility and the Origins of the Islamic Republic’s Nuclear Programme

Steven Hurst

in The United States and the Iranian Nuclear Programme: A Critical History

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780748682638
eISBN:
9781474453912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748682638.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Chronologically, Chapter Two focuses on the 1980s, but the main theme of the chapter is the development of mutual antipathy between Iran and the United States. This development is traced through an ... More


“Be Karbala Miravim!”: Iran, or the Challenges of Internalizing International Humanitarian Law in a Muslim Country

Anicée Van Engeland

in Do the Geneva Conventions Matter?

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780199379774
eISBN:
9780190690977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199379774.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

This chapter considers the extent to which Islamic governance can integrate international humanitarian law (IHL) into its own legal system by examining the case of Iran. It addresses the consequences ... More


Additional Commitment Problem Cases: The Crimean, Pacific, and Iran-Iraq Wars

Alex Weisiger

in Logics of War: Explanations for Limited and Unlimited Conflicts

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451867
eISBN:
9780801468179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451867.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter presents case studies of the Crimean War, the Pacific War in World War II, and the Iran–Iraq War, which provide further support for the arguments about situational and dispositional ... More


From a Tilt to an Embrace, 1984–1989

Steven Hurst

in The United States and Iraq since 1979: Hegemony, Oil and War

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748627677
eISBN:
9780748672103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748627677.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

After some internal struggles between ‘pro-Iraqi’ and ‘pro-Iranian’ factions within the Reagan administration were ended in favour of the former by the arms to Iran scandal, American policy evolved ... More


Iran and Shiʿi Pilgrimage Networks: A Postrevolutionary Ideology

Kishwar Rizvi

in The Transnational Mosque: Architecture and Historical Memory in the Contemporary Middle East

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469621166
eISBN:
9781469624952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469621166.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Islam

Commemoration is central to the rituals of devotion and nationalism enacted in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This chapter pertains to Shiʿi networks that have moved beyond national boundaries to ... More


Ideational Projection after the Iranian Revolution

Lawrence Rubin

in Islam in the Balance: Ideational Threats in Arab Politics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780804790796
eISBN:
9780804792103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804790796.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines Egyptian and Saudi relations with Iran before and after Islamists came to power in the Iranian revolution. It argues that Egypt and Saudi Arabia perceived Iran's ideational ... More


New Movements and War on the Horizon

Sargon George Donabed

in Reforging a Forgotten History: Iraq and the Assyrians in the 20th Century

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780748686025
eISBN:
9781474408646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748686025.003.0006
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Chapter 6 surveys the 1980s from the rise of Saddam Hussein and the Iran–Iraq War to the Anfal period and its aftermath. It begins with a review of Anfal-related material and literature. The ... More


Toy Guns and the Real Dead in Iran

Jamal J. Elias

in Alef Is for Allah: Childhood, Emotion, and Visual Culture in Islamic Societies

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780520290075
eISBN:
9780520964402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520290075.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter follows the pattern of the previous two: it begins with a brief history of education and religion in modern Iran in order to situate the discussion of representations of childhood in the ... More


State Practice since the Second World War

Nina H. B. Jørgensen

in The Responsibility of States for International Crimes

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198298618
eISBN:
9780191685491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198298618.003.0021
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter is concerned with state practice since the Second World War. It provides examples of international inaction in the face of criminal behaviour by a state, such as Stalinist Russia, the ... More


Iran: Classical Themes and Contemporary Challenges

John L. Esposito, Tamara Sonn, and John O. Voll

in Islam and Democracy after the Arab Spring

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780195147988
eISBN:
9780190263799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195147988.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Islam, Religion and Society

This chapter examines Iran’s continued struggle for democratic governance. It considers Iran’s long history of authoritarian governance; the Constitutional Revolution of 1906; the Pahlavi coup; ... More


Sacred Defenses: Treacherous Memory in Postwar Iran

Kamran Rastegar

in Surviving Images: Cinema, War, and Cultural Memory in the Middle East

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199390168
eISBN:
9780199390199
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199390168.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies

This chapter examines the parameters of Iranian cultural discourse on the Iran-Iraq war, looking both at officially sanctioned war and postwar cinema and at works that emerge in ways that are at odds ... More


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