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The Amateurs Try their Hand: The Provision of Relief Parcels, 1940–1941

Neville Wylie

in Barbed Wire Diplomacy: Britain, Germany, and the Politics of Prisoners of War 1939-1945

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199547593
eISBN:
9780191720581
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547593.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter addresses the ‘parcels crisis’ of 1940–41 and shows how the collapse of the supply of relief parcels to German POW camps after the fall of France galvanized the prisoners and their ... More


Blueprints for International Criminal Courts and Their Political Rejection in the 1920s

Mark A. Lewis

in The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

At the Paris Peace Conference, liberal internationalists maintained that the international system could be regulated by a new League of Nations and an international court to settle political ... More


The International Committee of the Red Cross and custom

Iris Müller

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781526134158
eISBN:
9781526161000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7765/9781526134165.00022
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

In 1995, the 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent mandated the International Committee of the Red Cross to prepare a ‘report on customary rules of international ... More


Sans-Frontiérisme and the Rise of “New Humanitarianism”

Shai M. Dromi

in Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

To what extent does the contemporary transnational humanitarian field continue to bear the mark of the religious faith of its founders? This chapter shows that although the field has seen significant ... More


Revising the Geneva Conventions, 1946–49: Synthesizing the Old and New Justice

Mark A. Lewis

in The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

“New justice” ideas concerning the validity of post-war prosecution entered the revision of the Geneva Conventions in an expected way. The International Committee of the Red Cross was not willing ... More


The Réveil and the Founding of the Red Cross

Shai M. Dromi

in Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The early Red Cross movement promoted a controversial idea: establishing a sector of nongovernmental and impartial volunteer societies, which would be considered neutral parties on the battlefield. ... More


Humanitarian Intervention in the Balkans

Nicholas Morris*

in Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199267217
eISBN:
9780191601118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199267219.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Assesses the success of the two humanitarian interventions in the Balkans – Bosnia in 1995 and Kosovo in 1999 – from the perspective of humanitarian organizations. It argues how, ironically, the ... More


Normative Gatekeeping (1863–1921)

Giovanni Mantilla

in Lawmaking under Pressure: International Humanitarian Law and Internal Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781501752582
eISBN:
9781501752605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501752582.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

This chapter demonstrates how the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) faced important hurdles in its early years which threatened its position as a humanitarian broker and locked a ... More


Squaring the Circle: Creating Common Article 3 (1921–1949)

Giovanni Mantilla

in Lawmaking under Pressure: International Humanitarian Law and Internal Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781501752582
eISBN:
9781501752605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501752582.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

This chapter cites the adoption of Common Article 3 (CA3) as the product of a two-step process characterized by normative pressure and social pressure via forum isolation. It illustrates how the ... More


A Winding Road to the Additional Protocols (1950–1968)

Giovanni Mantilla

in Lawmaking under Pressure: International Humanitarian Law and Internal Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781501752582
eISBN:
9781501752605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501752582.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

This chapter traces the events that followed the adoption of Common Article 3 (CA3) in 1949 until 1968. It analyzes formal debates that resurfaced in the United Nations (UN) about revising and ... More


“Hunger War”: Humanitarian Rights and the Radfan Campaign

Brian Drohan

in Brutality in an Age of Human Rights: Activism and Counterinsurgency at the End of the British Empire

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781501714658
eISBN:
9781501714672
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501714658.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

Chapter three examines the 1964 Radfan campaign. During the campaign, security forces purposefully targeted civilian livelihoods by driving the population from their homes, burning food stores, ... More


The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Mark Lewis

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

The Birth of the New Justice explains the history of plans for ad hoc and permanent international criminal courts and new international criminal laws to repress aggressive war, war ... More


Perspective—The Evolving Laws of Armed Conflicts * **

Detlev F. Vagts and Theodor Meron

in Humanizing the Laws of War: Selected Writings of Richard Baxter

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680252
eISBN:
9780191760181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680252.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter discusses the development of humanitarian law of war. The first line of development can be dated from 1953. In that year, the International Committee of the Red Cross convened a meeting ... More


“How to Free Your Prisoner”: The Personal and the Political of International Prisoner Support

Padraic Kenney

in Dance in Chains: Imprisonment in the Modern World

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199375745
eISBN:
9780190840075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199375745.003.0006
Subject:
History, World Modern History, European Modern History

Though political prisoners are almost always incarcerated for national causes, they became the focus of international support in the twentieth century. The earliest attention was from diaspora ... More


The Origins and Evolution of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols

Giovanni Mantilla

in Do the Geneva Conventions Matter?

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780199379774
eISBN:
9780190690977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199379774.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

This chapter traces the development of the 1949 Geneva Conventions from their origins in pre-1949 treaty law through the 1977 Additional Protocols and to the present. It argues that international ... More


The International Court of Justice and the Law of Armed Conflicts

Claus Kreß

in The Development of International Law by the International Court of Justice

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199653218
eISBN:
9780191747922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653218.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Legal Profession and Ethics

This chapter examines the ICJ's contribution to the development of the law of armed conflicts. It suggests that the Court has not contributed decisively to the settlement of inter-state disputes ... More


The Struggle to Fight a Humane War: The United States, the Korean War, and the 1949 Geneva Conventions

Sahr Conway-Lanz

in Do the Geneva Conventions Matter?

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780199379774
eISBN:
9780190690977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199379774.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

The Korean War demonstrated the serious problems that the United States had adhering to the new 1949 Geneva Conventions and the severely limited protections that these new treaties provided. The ... More


Aden: Results and reactions

Samantha Newbery

in Interrogation, intelligence and security: Controversial British Techniques

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780719091483
eISBN:
9781781708552
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719091483.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter completes the book’s coverage of the Aden case by charting the results and reactions that followed the use of the ‘five techniques’ there. It will be shown that not only was ... More


Humanitarianism and Massacres: THE EXAMPLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS

Irène Herrmann

in Resisting Genocide: The Multiple Forms of Rescue

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199333493
eISBN:
9780190235628
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199333493.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter analyses the attitude of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) regarding the massacres of the Hereros, the Armenians, and the Jews. It first considers how the ICRC viewed ... More


Epilogue

Mark A. Lewis

in The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

Despite intellectual strides in the ideas of the “new justice” between 1919–1950 and their partial realization after 1945, prospects were weak at the start of the Cold War that international criminal ... More


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