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Children of the Working Class: Environmental Marginality and Child Health at Black Mesa, Arizona (AD 900–1150)

Debra L. Martin, Jennifer L. Thompson, and John J. Crandall

in Tracing Childhood: Bioarchaeological Investigations of Early Lives in Antiquity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780813049830
eISBN:
9780813050324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813049830.003.0011
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Health in marginal environments is a global concern. In particular, children are extremely vulnerable to malnutrition and infection in such contexts. This chapter presents an analysis of subadult ... More


Transmission, infection, and pathogenesis

Paul Schmid-Hempel

in Evolutionary Parasitology: The Integrated Study of Infections, Immunology, Ecology, and Genetics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198832140
eISBN:
9780191870873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198832140.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Transmission is a key process for parasites. Different routes (e.g. faecal–oral) and modes (e.g. by aerosols or vectors) exist. A major context is vertical (to offspring) or horizontal (all other) ... More


Coevolution, infection, and immunity

Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Felicia Low, and Mark Hanson

in Principles of Evolutionary Medicine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199663927
eISBN:
9780191823206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199663927.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Humans have evolved with their pathogens, parasites, and commensals. This process of coevolution has shaped human physiology as well as the biology of the microbiota. The human gut microbiome ... More


Parasite immune evasion and manipulation of host phenotype

Paul Schmid-Hempel

in Evolutionary Parasitology: The Integrated Study of Infections, Immunology, Ecology, and Genetics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198832140
eISBN:
9780191870873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198832140.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

All parasites manipulate their hosts by interference with immune defences and host behaviour. Passive evasion, for example, is by molecular mimicry or by changing surfaces. Active interference ... More


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