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Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Lindsay Parks Pieper

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

In 1968, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) implemented sex testing for female athletes at that year's Games. When it became clear that testing regimes failed to delineate a sex divide, the ... More


East versus West: German-German Sporting Tensions from Hallstein to Ostpolitik

Kay Schiller and Christopher Young

in The 1972 Munich Olympics and the Making of Modern Germany

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520262133
eISBN:
9780520947580
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520262133.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter begins by explaining that the Munich Games might have coincided with the conclusion of Ostopolitik, but they were not a straightforward “Ostopolitik Olympics”. It then notes that ... More


Introduction

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This introductory chapter sets out the book's purpose, which is to book explores the history of sex testing from the 1930s to the early 2000s. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) used different ... More


“A Careful Inquiry to Establish Her Sex beyond a Doubt”: Sex/Gender Anxieties in Track and Field

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter illustrates the sex-segregated framework of sport and highlights the historical threats to the sex/gender status quo. In the early twentieth century, track and field was the most popular ... More


Is the Athlete “Right” or “Wrong”?: The IOC’s Chromosomal Construction of Womanhood, 1968–1972

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter discusses how the international tensions that surfaced during the Cold War played a large role in the initial institution of sex verification at the 1968 Olympics. To remove the “wrong” ... More


“East Germany’s Mighty Sports Machine”: Steroids, Nationalism, and Femininity Testing

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) created its medical commission in order to deter athletes from consuming performance-enhancing substances and to bar sex/gender-transgressive women from ... More


The US vs. USSR: Gender Testing, Doping Checks, and Olympic Boycotts

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0006
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

While the US–USSR rivalry dissipated somewhat in the 1970s, the two countries experienced an escalation of hostilities in the 1980s. Through athletic contests and strategic boycotts, the Olympics ... More


“One of the Most Horrid Misuses of a Scientific Method”: The Development of a Protest

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

Although the International Olympic Committee (IOC) sought to differentiate women from men, the methods employed repeatedly illustrated the difficulty in determining the exact composition of ... More


“Gender Testing Per Se Is No Longer Necessary”: The IAAF’s and the IOC’s Continued Control

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter demonstrates how alternative requirements merely rendered gender verification moot. In 1992, the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) terminated all mandatory gender ... More


Epilogue: The Reintroduction of Gender Verification

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0009
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter discusses the return of sex and gender testing in international sport. The International Association of Athletics Federation and International Olympic Committee (IOC) sponsored six ... More


The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Olympic Games

Toby C. Rider

in Cold War Games: Propaganda, the Olympics, and U.S. Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040238
eISBN:
9780252098451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040238.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter considers the politics of the Olympic Games. The international sporting system, within which the Olympics reside, had emerged in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as a force of ... More


Introduction

Matthew P. Llewellyn and John Gleaves

in The Rise and Fall of Olympic Amateurism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040351
eISBN:
9780252098772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040351.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This introductory chapter sets out the book's purpose, which is to present a richly contextualized global history of the role of Olympic amateurism, from Coubertin's Olympic revival in 1894 through ... More


A Universal Dilemma

Matthew P. Llewellyn and John Gleaves

in The Rise and Fall of Olympic Amateurism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040351
eISBN:
9780252098772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040351.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter discusses how amateurism freely evolved into an organic and malleable construct as it spread and diffused around the globe. From its institutional seedbed in Britain, amateurism would ... More


“Ambassadors in Tracksuits”

Matthew P. Llewellyn and John Gleaves

in The Rise and Fall of Olympic Amateurism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040351
eISBN:
9780252098772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040351.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter details the expanding globalization and commercialization of the Olympics in the 1930s. Emerging from the economic ruins of the Great Depression, authoritarian and totalitarian regimes ... More


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