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The Quantitative Transformation of Natural Philosophy

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity 1210-1685

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199296446
eISBN:
9780191711985
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296446.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter looks at attempts to quantify natural phenomena and, in particular, forces. Early efforts along these lines — notably by Galileo and Descartes — tried to extrapolate from statics to ... More


o n e The Vis Viva Debate Kant's Starting Point

Martin Schönfeld

in The Philosophy of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195132182
eISBN:
9780199786336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195132181.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter explores the context of Kant’s first and original puzzle: what actually is force? It is an account of the debate over kinetic energy (Leibniz’s “living force” or vis viva) and the ... More


f o u r f o u r The Conversion to Newton

Martin Schöneld

in The Philosophy of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195132182
eISBN:
9780199786336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195132181.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter explores Kant’s studies from 1754 to 1757, the application of his dynamic perspectives to fire, tides, the Earth’s rotation, climate, winds, and earthquakes. Section 1 surveys the ... More


PREHISTORY, BEGINNING OF HISTORY, AND THE TODDLING PERIOD

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Although probabilistic reasoning was implicit in man’s behaviour in uncertain situations even in primitive times, and can be traced in some ancient texts and medieval writings, probability as a ... More


An Introduction to Newton's Scientific Method

William L. Harper

in Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data into Evidence about Gravity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199570409
eISBN:
9780191728679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570409.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter includes some historical background on Astronomy, mechanics and physical causes, as well as an overview of Newton’s background framework and his theoretical concept of a centripetal ... More


Unification and the Moon‐Test (Propositions 3 and 4 Book 3)

William L. Harper

in Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data into Evidence about Gravity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199570409
eISBN:
9780191728679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570409.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

It reviews Newton’s argument for the claim that the moon is maintained in its orbit by an inverse-square force directed toward the earth. It introduces Newton’s moon-test argument for identifying the ... More


Christiaan Huygens: A Great Natural Philosopher Who Measured Gravity and an Illuminating Foil for Newton on Method

William L. Harper

in Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data into Evidence about Gravity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199570409
eISBN:
9780191728679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570409.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Part I gives background on Huygens’ theory-mediated measurement of gravity. It reviews his reaction to differing pendulum measurements from different latitudes and his application of rotation to give ... More


From the Moon to the Planets

George Basalla

in Civilized Life in the Universe: Scientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195171815
eISBN:
9780199786862
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195171815.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

In the 17th century, John Wilkins and Bernard Fontenelle discussed space travel and the nature of extraterrestrial life in book-length studies. In 1697, Christiaan Huygens published Kosmotheoros, an ... More


Spinoza, Science, and the Scientists

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0014
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

The most important and exceptional element in Spinoza's scientific thought is simply that natural philosophy, or science, is of universal applicability and that there is no reserved area beyond it. ... More


Among Ancient Men: Petrarch, Machiavelli, Sidney and Huygens

Jürgen Pieters

in Speaking With the Dead: Explorations in Literature and History

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748615889
eISBN:
9780748652020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748615889.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter discusses the importance of Petrarch, Machiavelli, Sir Philip Sidney, and Constantijn Huygens in the early-modern period. Stephen Greenblatt's description of his own work as stemming ... More


The Gaze of Medusa and the Practice of the Historian: Rubens and Huygens

Jürgen Pieters

in Speaking With the Dead: Explorations in Literature and History

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748615889
eISBN:
9780748652020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748615889.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter addresses the significance of Constantijn Huygens and Peter Paul Rubens. Conversation with the dead is a dialogue of the special sort that thrives upon the separation of its ... More


Diffraction and Gaussian Beams

B. D. Guenther

in Modern Optics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780198738770
eISBN:
9780191801983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738770.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

A descriptive scalar theory, based on Huygens’ principle is used to derive an integral called the Huygens–Fresnel integral. Two more rigorous mathematical treatments of scalar diffraction theory: ... More


Diffraction of Plane Electromagnetic Waves by a Cylinder

John A. Adam

in Rays, Waves, and Scattering: Topics in Classical Mathematical Physics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691148373
eISBN:
9781400885404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148373.003.0020
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This chapter discusses the mathematics underlying the diffraction of plane electromagnetic waves by a cylinder. Radio signals may undergo diffraction. A signal that encounters an obstacle tends to ... More


Unravelling The Mystery of Crystals: The Forerunners

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter recounts the early attempts at guessing the inner structure of crystals. The Ancients thought quartz was the result of the congelation of water. The first to think that the symmetry of ... More


The Dual Nature of Light

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter summarizes the theories of the nature of light, including the corpuscular theory and the wave theory, developed up to the end of the nineteenth century. The early theories (Descartes, ... More


Measuring the Immeasurable

Mary-Jane Rubenstein

in Worlds Without End: The Many Lives of the Multiverse

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231156622
eISBN:
9780231527422
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231156622.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the activities of seventeenth-century cosmologies, starting with Giordano Bruno’s heretical cosmology and subsequent execution. The fascination with the possibility of other ... More


Margaret Cavendish (1623–73)

Jacqueline Broad (ed.)

in Women Philosophers of Seventeenth-Century England: Selected Correspondence

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780190673321
eISBN:
9780190673369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190673321.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter contains a selection of the private correspondence of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, as well as several epistles taken from her published works. It includes Cavendish’s ... More


Rationalism in the History of Mechanics

Olivier Darrigol

in Physics and Necessity: Rationalist Pursuits from the Cartesian Past to the Quantum Present

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198712886
eISBN:
9780191781360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712886.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter is a history of necessity arguments in classical mechanics, including the seventeenth-century opposition between Descartes’s rationalism and Newton’s empiricism, the rationalism of ... More


Reading Jesuit Voyages

in Sojourners in a Strange Land: Jesuits and Their Scientific Missions in Late Imperial China

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226355597
eISBN:
9780226355610
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226355610.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Of the various audiences that the Voyage de Siam was meant to please, the book's royal dedicatee, at least, seems to have been well satisfied with its account of his newly commissioned mathématiciens ... More


Huygens: The Theoretical Voyage of the Cosmotheoros

in Fictions of the Cosmos: Science and Literature in the Seventeenth Century

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226011226
eISBN:
9780226011240
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226011240.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines accounts of theoretical voyages in Dutch natural philosopher Christiaan Huygens' book Cosmotheoros. It explains that in the book Huygens portrayed a unified space of a ... More


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