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The Law-Governed Universe

John T. Roberts

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199557707
eISBN:
9780191721052
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557707.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This book articulates and defends a new philosophical account of laws of nature. According to this account, lawhood is a meta‐theoretic notion: the primary concept is that of a law of a particular ... More


Practical Reality

Jonathan Dancy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199253050
eISBN:
9780191597282
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253056.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Practical Reality is about the relation between the reasons why we do things and the reasons why we should. It claims that, in order to understand this relation, we have to abandon ... More


Internal Reasons and Contractualist Impartiality

Alan Thomas

in Value and Context: The Nature of Moral and Political Knowledge

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780198250173
eISBN:
9780191604072
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250177.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines a proposal concerning the nature of practical reasons: that all such reasons are internal reasons. It is the first obstacle that was placed in the way of the Wittgensteinian ... More


Beyond Humean and non‐Humean

John T. Roberts

in The Law-Governed Universe

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199557707
eISBN:
9780191721052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557707.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

Much of the recent literature on laws of nature is about the dispute between Humean and Non‐Humean accounts of laws. The MAL does not fit easily in either camp. Like Humean views, it is ontologically ... More


The law‐governed world‐picture

John T. Roberts

in The Law-Governed Universe

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199557707
eISBN:
9780191721052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557707.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

The idea that science has discovered that our universe is governed by laws of nature is arguably an important part of the modern scientific world‐view. The distinction between laws and other truths ... More


Conceptions of Self: An Analytical Taxonomy

Jonardon Ganeri

in The Self: Naturalism, Consciousness, and the First-Person Stance

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199652365
eISBN:
9780191740718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652365.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, History of Philosophy

This chapter develops an analytical framework within which conceptions of self can be identified and classified. A conception about self supplies an answer to the question “What am I?” Until very ... More


Why Humeans Are Out of Their Minds

John Hawthorne

in Metaphysical Essays

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199291236
eISBN:
9780191710612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199291236.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

According to Humeanism, the causal facts pertaining to any subregion of the world are extrinsic to that region, supervening on the global distribution of freely recombinable fundamental properties. ... More


Classical Theories of Reasons and Motivation

Jeanette Kennett

in Agency and Responsibility: A Common-Sense Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199266302
eISBN:
9780191699146
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199266302.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter presents an outline of Socrates' view of moral psychology as presented in Plato's Protagoras. The chapter concerns with the critical examination of some classical and modern views of ... More


Humean Accounts of Reasons and Motivation: Davidson and Decision Theory 1

Jeanette Kennett

in Agency and Responsibility: A Common-Sense Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199266302
eISBN:
9780191699146
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199266302.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter focuses on Humean accounts. It first examines Donald Davidson's distinctly Humean account of reasons for action in his paper ‘How is the Weakness of the Will Possible?’, and looks into ... More


Reasons for Action

Jonathan Dancy

in Practical Reality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199253050
eISBN:
9780191597282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253056.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Introduces various distinctions: between the reasons why we should act (normative reasons), those for which we act (motivating reasons), and (more generally) the reasons why we act. It also ... More


Reasons and Desires

Jonathan Dancy

in Practical Reality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199253050
eISBN:
9780191597282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253056.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Argues that normative reasons are value‐based rather than desire‐based, following and hopefully improving on the work of Raz, Quinn, and Scanlon.


The Theory of Motivating States

Jonathan Dancy

in Practical Reality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199253050
eISBN:
9780191597282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253056.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Argues that cognitivism is the best form of psychologism; that is, that Humean accounts of motivation in terms of belief–desire combinations should be rejected in favour of cognitive ones that take ... More


Dispositional and Categorical Properties

John Heil

in From an Ontological Point of View

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199259748
eISBN:
9780191597657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199259747.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

One popular view of dispositions turns them into ‘higher‐level’ properties with categorical ‘realizers’. The position is motivated in part by the belief that the same disposition can have different ... More


Motivational Humeanism

Russ Shafer-Landau

in Moral Realism: A Defence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199259755
eISBN:
9780191601835
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199259455.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Discusses the role of motivational Humeanism is a classic anti‐realist argument. Provides some reasons to reject this theory of action, and then offers criticisms of the most powerful arguments ... More


Getting past Hume in the philosophy of social science

Ruth Groff

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0014
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

A realist, powers‐based metaphysics is very much on the table in contemporary metaphysics, and is beginning to take hold in philosophy of mind and philosophy of science. On this picture, causality is ... More


Three Roads to Objective Probability 1

Tim Maudlin

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter considers three ways in which probabilities may be derived from a physical theory without adverting to subjective considerations. The first derives from a fundamentally stochastic ... More


Physics and the Humean approach to Probability

Carl Hoefer

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter defends a Humean approach to objective probabilities in physics. Two motivations for a Humean account of probabilities are distinguished: One derives from a general commitment to a ... More


The Powers Metaphysic

Neil E. Williams

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198833574
eISBN:
9780191872006
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833574.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Systematic metaphysics is defined by its task of solving metaphysical problems through the repeated application of a single, fundamental ontology. The dominant contemporary metaphysic is that of ... More


Potentiality: From Dispositions to Modality

Barbara Vetter

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198714316
eISBN:
9780191782718
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198714316.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book develops and defends dispositionalism about modality: the view that metaphysical modality is a matter of the dispositions that objects have. Dispositionalism is an attractive view for ... More


Introduction

Michael B. Gill

in Humean Moral Pluralism

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198714033
eISBN:
9780191782480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198714033.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter explains what it means for a view of morality to be “pluralist” and “Humean.” It also describes Berys Gaut’s distinction between prioritarianism and pluralism, and shows how Gaut ... More


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