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Herbert Spencer, the Radical

Thomas Dixon

in The Invention of Altruism: Making Moral Meanings in Victorian Britain

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264263
eISBN:
9780191734816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264263.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

Aside from Darwin, the writer most commonly associated with evolution in Victorian Britain, and the country’s most famous living philosopher, was the individualistic Herbert Spencer. Spencer ... More


Herbert Spencer and the Beginnings of Evolutionary Psychology

Rick Rylance

in Victorian Psychology and British Culture 1850–1880

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198122838
eISBN:
9780191671555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198122838.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

Of all the shifts in psychological opinion in the period covered by this book, probably the most far-reaching was the remodeling of it in the light of evolutionary theories. The evolutionary paradigm ... More


Conceptualizing the State: Innovation and Dispute in British Political Thought 1880-1914

James Meadowcroft

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206019
eISBN:
9780191676918
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206019.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, History of Ideas

This book is concerned with the way in which the concept of the state was invoked in British political argument between 1880 and 1914. Its central claim is that the decades bracketing the turn of the ... More


Philosophy and internationalist ethics

Casper Sylvest

in British Liberal Internationalism, 1880-1930: Making Progress?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719079092
eISBN:
9781781703151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719079092.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter explores the internationalist ideology that emerged from the political and social thought of Herbert Spencer and Henry Sidgwick. A discussion of the role of philosophical idealists, ... More


A Very Social Darwinist: Herbert Spencer’s Lamarckian Radicalism

Piers J. Hale

in Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of Evolution in Victorian England

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226108490
eISBN:
9780226108520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226108520.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Following recent scholarship it is clear that Herbert Spencer was no social Darwinist, rather his Lamarckian politics reflected an appreciation of the radicalism of William Godwin and Erasmus Darwin. ... More


Herbert Spencer, Hugh Cecil, and the State

JAMES MEADOWCROFT

in Conceptualizing the State: Innovation and Dispute in British Political Thought 1880-1914

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206019
eISBN:
9780191676918
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206019.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, History of Ideas

Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) and Hugh Cecil (1869–1956) each made significant contributions to arguments about the state during the period with which this book is concerned. There are significant ... More


The Long Peace of the Nineteenth Century and the Birth of Sociology

Hans Joas and Wolfgang Knöbl

in War in Social Thought: Hobbes to the Present

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691150840
eISBN:
9781400844746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691150840.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Social Theory

This chapter examines how the progressive optimism nourished by liberal doctrines gradually began to take hold and how sociology as a discipline took a particularly wide variety of institutional ... More


Egoism Rehabilitated

Robin Small

in Nietzsche and Rée: A Star Friendship

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199278077
eISBN:
9780191602702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278075.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

In On the Genealogy of Morals (1887), Nietzsche criticizes the ideas of the ‘English psychologists’—in fact, the account of the moral sense he had earlier borrowed from Rée—and elaborates his own ... More


Spencer and a liberal road to welfare: the eclipse of a vision

John Offer

in An intellectual history of British social policy: Idealism versus non-idealism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861345318
eISBN:
9781447301455
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861345318.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter addresses both the arguments of Herbert Spencer against welfare provisions emanating from the state and his support for ‘private beneficence’, for charities and for the expanded ... More


The Invention of Altruism: Making Moral Meanings in Victorian Britain

Thomas Dixon

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264263
eISBN:
9780191734816
Item type:
book
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264263.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

‘Altruism’ was coined by the French sociologist Auguste Comte in the early 1850s as a theoretical term in his ‘cerebral theory’ and as the central ideal of his atheistic ‘Religion of Humanity’. This ... More


The British Peace Movement 1870-1914

Paul Laity

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199248353
eISBN:
9780191714672
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199248353.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This book covers the late Victorian and Edwardian peace movement, the campaigns of which made a significant impact on political debate, especially during the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), the ... More


Aesthetics, Psychology, and Biology

Ian Small

in Conditions for Criticism: Authority, Knowledge, and Literature in the Late Nineteenth Century

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198122418
eISBN:
9780191671418
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198122418.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter discusses how psychology is a newly defined and recently professionalized discipline of knowledge that seemed in all its epistemological assumptions to endorse at an abstract level the ... More


Into the twentieth century

Casper Sylvest

in British Liberal Internationalism, 1880-1930: Making Progress?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719079092
eISBN:
9781781703151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719079092.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter shows how ideas and arguments emerging within the legal, philosophical and historical languages of internationalism were exploited by a new and younger generation. Lassa Oppenheim ... More


Mr. Spencer's Ethical System

Henry Sidgwick

in Essays on Ethics and Method

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250234
eISBN:
9780191598432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250231.003.0025
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In his discussion of Herbert Spencer's effort to provide a scientific basis for the rules of right conduct, Sidgwick maintains that this species of inquiry does not necessarily establish the ... More


Spencer’s Evolutionary Entanglement: From Liminal Individuals to Implicit Collectivities

Snait Gissis

in Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226446318
eISBN:
9780226446592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226446592.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Herbert Spencer’s notions of biological individuality as expounded from the 1850s until the late 1860s are presented. I argue that: 1) Spencer developed a basic epistemological and methodological ... More


International Society in Victorian Political Thought: T. H. Green, Herbert Spencer, and Henry Sidgwick

Duncan Bell

in Reordering the World: Essays on Liberalism and Empire

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691138787
eISBN:
9781400881024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691138787.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter analyzes the overlapping ideas about international society to be found in the political thought of three leading late Victorian liberal thinkers: T. H. Green (1836–82), Herbert Spencer ... More


Free agent or ‘conscious automaton’? The individual in Spencer’s social theory

John Offer

in An intellectual history of British social policy: Idealism versus non-idealism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861345318
eISBN:
9781447301455
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861345318.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter explores Herbert Spencer's complex interpretation of individuals and social life. It is primarily concerned with how Spencer understood ‘social individuals’ and ‘social life’, and to ... More


Spencer on Justice

Henry Sidgwick

in Essays on Ethics and Method

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250234
eISBN:
9780191598432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250231.003.0030
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In his writings on animal ethics, Spencer maintains that the ultimate end of human conduct as well as of animal conduct is the greatest length, breadth, and completeness of life; acts are good that ... More


The American Spencerians: Theorizing a New Science

Daniel Breslau

in Sociology in America: A History

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226090948
eISBN:
9780226090962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226090962.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter examines the social sources of Spencerian sociology and the practices of research and discipline-building that it contains. Spencerianism here means the founders' adoption of Herbert ... More


Rethinking resistance: Spencer, Krishnavarma, and The Indian Sociologist

Inder S. Marwah

in Colonial Exchanges: Political Theory and the Agency of the Colonized

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781526105646
eISBN:
9781526128140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9781526105646.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Given both a traditional Sanskrit and an English education in Gujarat, Shyamji Krishnavarma became known in India as a Sanskrit scholar at a young age, and this reputation eventually brought him to ... More


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