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Rational People and Religion

Witham Larry

in Marketplace of the Gods: How Economics Explains Religion

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195394757
eISBN:
9780199777372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195394757.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Economics and cognitive psychology have long debated the nature of human rationality. One says humans have a capacity for rational calculation, while the other points to “cognitive bias” in people’s ... More


Problem Solving

Christopher K. Ansell

in Pragmatist Democracy: Evolutionary Learning as Public Philosophy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199772438
eISBN:
9780199918997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199772438.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter develops a model of strategic problem-solving in public agencies, generalizing from work on policing, regulation, and organizational problem-solving. Pragmatism adopts an ecological ... More


Naturalizing Epistemology: Quine, Simon, and the Prospects for Pragmatism

Stephen Stich

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In recent years there has been a great deal of discussion about the prospects of developing a “naturalized epistemology,” though different authors tend to interpret this label in quite different ... More


Ideas, Pioneers, and Precursors

Kumaraswamy Velupillai

in Computable Economics: The Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295273
eISBN:
9780191596988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295278.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

In this chapter, a first, tentative attempt is made to define the nature and scope of what is meant by computable economics. From a study of the way economics was mathematized in the modern era, – ... More


Steps Toward the Synthetic Method: Symbolic Information Processing and Self-Organizing Systems in Early Artificial Intelligence Modeling

Roberto Cordeschi

in The Mechanical Mind in History

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083775
eISBN:
9780262256384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083775.003.0010
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter focuses on two theories of human cognitive processes developed in the context of cybernetics and early artificial intelligence (AI). The first theory is that of the cyberneticist Donald ... More


The Employment Relationship

David Marsden

in A Theory of Employment Systems: Micro-Foundations of Societal Diversity

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294221
eISBN:
9780191596612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294220.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The employment relationship is flexible because it is open‐ended or ‘incomplete’, but no workers would agree to be become employees unless there were some agreement over the limits to which managers ... More


Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter proposes a class of heuristics that exhibit bounded rationality based on Herbert Simon’s ideas. These “fast and frugal heuristics” operate with simple psychological principles that ... More


The Bounded Rationality of Cold War Operations Research

Paul Erickson, Judy L. Klein, Lorraine Daston, Paul Rebecca, Thomas Sturm, and Michael D. Gordin

in How Reason Almost Lost Its Mind: The Strange Career of Cold War Rationality

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226046631
eISBN:
9780226046778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226046778.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Cold War military needs for cost-effective readiness induced a mathematical construction of rationality while simultaneously binding that rationality with computational reality. In 1947 in an effort ... More


The Private Argument between Chester Barnard and Herbert Simon about the Boundaries of Management Science

in Creating New Knowledge in Management: Appropriating the Field's Lost Foundations

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804770750
eISBN:
9780804778374
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804770750.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Knowledge Management

This chapter examines Chester Barnard's epistemology for a management science and his argument with Herbert Simon, founder of organization science. Simon separated research from experience, thus ... More


Conclusion

Barry M. Katz

in Make It New: The History of Silicon Valley Design

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029636
eISBN:
9780262330923
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029636.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

Make it New concludes by introducing the concept of “Design Thinking,” the most recent and possibly the most influential export of the Silicon Valley design community. Design Thinking suggests that ... More


A Theory of Employment Systems: Micro-Foundations of Societal Diversity

David Marsden

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294221
eISBN:
9780191596612
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294220.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

‘A theory of Employment Systems’ explains why there are such great international differences in the way employment relations are organized within the firm. It takes account of the growing evidence of ... More


The Superstructure of Effectiveness

Michael E. Martinez

in Future Bright: A Transforming Vision of Human Intelligence

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199781843
eISBN:
9780190256050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199781843.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter explores three personal factors that together predict effectiveness in complex and dynamic environments: fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and effective character. It first ... More


Plant behaviour: first intimations of self-organization

Anthony Trewavas

in Plant Behaviour and Intelligence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199539543
eISBN:
9780191788291
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539543.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Behaviours are the responses by organisms to environmental problems, whether these involve movement or not. These problems can be generalized and are uniform for most organisms; finding food, ... More


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