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How the Government Created Private Health Insurance

Robert I. Field

in Mother of Invention: How the Government Created "Free-Market" Health Care

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199746750
eISBN:
9780199354528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746750.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Private health insurance emerged from the efforts of hospitals and physicians to devise alternative payment arrangements during the Great Depression. Two federal policiesfostered its spread during ... More


The Medicaid Program

Thomas Buchmueller, John C. Ham, and Lara D. Shore-Sheppard

in Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Volume I

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226370477
eISBN:
9780226370507
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226370507.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

In both its costs and the number of its enrollees, Medicaid is the largest means-tested transfer program in the United States. It is also a fundamental part of the health care system, providing ... More


The Government and the Private Market in Health Care

Robert I. Field

in Mother of Invention: How the Government Created "Free-Market" Health Care

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199746750
eISBN:
9780199354528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746750.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The American health care system, which appears on its surface as a predominantly private endeavour, actually rests on a foundation of government support. Itreflects a huge public-private partnership ... More


Health Reform, Government Initiative, and the Future of American Health Care

Robert I. Field

in Mother of Invention: How the Government Created "Free-Market" Health Care

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199746750
eISBN:
9780199354528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746750.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) culminated a century of efforts to achieve universal health coverage. They increasingly focused on market approaches, and the ACA followed this trend by relying on ... More


South Africa: Embracing National Health Insurance—In Name Only

Joseph Harris

in Achieving Access: Professional Movements and the Politics of Health Universalism

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781501709968
eISBN:
9781501714832
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501709968.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Although a constellation of factors would seem to have predisposed South Africa to make major new commitments to expand access to healthcare after the fall of apartheid, embrace of National Health ... More


Health

Helen Hershkoff and Stephen Loffredo

in Getting By: Economic Rights and Legal Protections for People with Low Income

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780190080860
eISBN:
9780199364763
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080860.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter addresses the issue of health care for low-income people. The United States, virtually alone among developed nations, does not offer universal access to health care, leaving many ... More


Moral Hazard in Health Insurance: Developments Since Arrow (1963)

Amy Finkelstein

in Moral Hazard in Health Insurance

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231163804
eISBN:
9780231538688
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231163804.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

This chapter examines economics professor Amy Finkelstein's lecture of the economics of moral hazard in health insurance, with respect to economist Kenneth J. Arrow's “Uncertainty and the Welfare ... More


Aligning Clinical Practice with Best Evidence of Comparative Effectiveness: Payment Policy for Evidence-Based Medical Care

Carol M. Ashton and Nelda P. Wray

in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Evidence, Medicine, and Policy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199968565
eISBN:
9780199346080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199968565.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Contemporary U.S. health care is characterized by the under-use of services known to improve patients’ outcomes and the over-use of services beyond what can benefit patients. Large proportions of ... More


The Emergence of the New Era of Reform

Gunnar Almgren

in Health Care as a Right of Citizenship: The Continuing Evolution of Reform

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780231170130
eISBN:
9780231543316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231170130.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

The chapter begins with a review of the efforts to reform health care in ways that would assure health care for all Americans, beginning with Progressive Era reforms in the early 1900’s through the ... More


Removing the Instability and Inequity in the Japanese Health Insurance System

Seiritsu Ogura, Tamotsu Kadoda, and Makoto Kawamura

in Health Care Issues in the United States and Japan

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226902920
eISBN:
9780226903248
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226903248.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter compares Japan's current public medical insurance to an unstable two-story building, whose second floor (health insurance for the elderly) is becoming heavier each day, while its first ... More


The Business of Health Care and the Challenge of Health Security: The Case of Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme in Andhra Pradesh

K.P. Kannan and Jan Breman

in The Long Road to Social Security: Assessing the Implementation of National Social Security Initiatives for the Working Poor in India

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198090311
eISBN:
9780199082490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198090311.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Occupations, Professions, and Work

Until the mid-1980s, India’s public health care institutions offered free health care to everyone, while the private sector catered to those who can afford. Over the years, however, public health ... More


How Will Employers Respond to National Health Reform?: Lessons from the 2006 Reform Initiative in Massachusetts

Sharon K. Long, Karen Stockley, Heather Dahlen, and Ariel Fogel

in Working and Living in the Shadow of Economic Fragility

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199988488
eISBN:
9780190218249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199988488.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy, Research and Evaluation

The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is introducing extensive changes to the US health care system, including new requirements around the provision of health insurance coverage ... More


Subrogation

Rob Merkin and Jenny Steele

in Insurance and the Law of Obligations

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199645749
eISBN:
9780191747823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645749.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Law of Obligations

Explains the hidden significance of insurer subrogation for the law of obligations, explores its operation, and identifies how it may best be controlled. Argues that broadly contractual analysis ... More


Health Care Reforms: Do They Ensure Social Protection for the Labouring Poor?

Purendra Prasad

in Equity and Access: Health Care Studies in India

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780199482160
eISBN:
9780199097746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199482160.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

How do 35 crore people in India survive on Rs 32 per person per day in urban areas and Rs 26 per person per day in rural areas? The data from National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised ... More


The Long Road to Social Security: Assessing the Implementation of National Social Security Initiatives for the Working Poor in India

K.P. Kannan and Jan Breman (eds)

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198090311
eISBN:
9780199082490
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198090311.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Occupations, Professions, and Work

In 2004, the first United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government of India created a National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) to review the country’s informal economy in ... More


What We Know and Don’t Know about the Effects of Cost Sharing on the Demand for Medical Care—and So What?

Joseph P. Newhouse and Anna D. Sinaiko

in Incentives and Choice in Health Care

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262195775
eISBN:
9780262283816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195775.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter focuses on the effects of cost sharing on the demand for medical care based on the results of the Rand Health Insurance Experiment (HIE) conducted in the 1970s and 1980s to investigate ... More


The Major Health Care Fraud Laws

Terry L. Leap

in Phantom Billing, Fake Prescriptions, and the High Cost of Medicine: Health Care Fraud and What to Do about It

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801449796
eISBN:
9780801460807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801449796.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the major health care fraud laws in the United States. There are five laws that are specific to health care fraud and abuse: the 1972 anti-kickback statute, the Stark Law ... More


Re-Spatializing Social Security in India

Ursula Rao

in Spaces of Security: Ethnographies of Securityscapes, Surveillance, and Control

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781479863013
eISBN:
9781479805778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479863013.003.0011
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter analyzes the changing logic and logistics of welfare security in the biometric governance era. Power is exercised spatially, and in modern nation-states it follows a model Gupta and ... More


Relocating Reproduction

Brianna Theobald

in Reproduction on the Reservation: Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Colonialism in the Long Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9781469653167
eISBN:
9781469653181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469653167.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Native American Studies

This chapter considers the experiences of the thousands of Native women of childbearing age who migrated from reservations to cities in the decades following World War II. The federal government’s ... More


Mexico: Formalizing the Labor Market

Gabriel Martinez, Nelly Aguilera, and Martha Miranda

in Jobs For Development: Challenges and Solutions in Different Country Settings

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198754848
eISBN:
9780191816321
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198754848.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, Public and Welfare

The coverage of social security in Mexico has not grown for more than two and a half decades. Half of the population or more does not have health insurance nor is on track to receive a pension ... More


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