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Individuality in Classical Physics

Steven French and Décio Krause

in Identity in Physics: A Historical, Philosophical, and Formal Analysis

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199278244
eISBN:
9780191603952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278245.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents a summary of the history of classical statistical mechanics, emphasizing the underlying assumptions regarding particle individuality. It is argued that the relevant sense of ... More


Introduction

T. Grandy Walter

in Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199546176
eISBN:
9780191720161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This introductory chapter reviews the origins of entropy and classical thermodynamics. It then summarizes 19th-century attempts to explain these theories in terms of the underlying molecular ... More


Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

T. Grandy Walter

in Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199546176
eISBN:
9780191720161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter applies the theoretical tolls developed in Chapter 3 to macroscopic systems in thermal equilibrium, wherein the Gibbs variational principle is understood as defining the equilibrium ... More


Applications to Limited Dependent Variable Models

Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort

in Simulation-based Econometric Methods

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198774754
eISBN:
9780191596339
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774753.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Presents several applications of the methods presented in the previous chapters to Limited Dependent Variables models. Considers Discrete Choice models, Multivariate Probit Models, Logistic ... More


Trends and Breaking Points of the Bayesian Econometric Literature

Luc Bauwens and Michel Lubrano

in Economics Beyond the Millennium

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292111
eISBN:
9780191596537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292112.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Microeconomics

The authors recall the basic differences of view between classical and Bayesian analysis and note that the dispute among statisticians has not been exactly reflected in econometrics. Starting with a ... More


MATTER IN DISPERSION

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses dispersed matter. Topics covered include disperse phases, stabilization of disperse systems, the Gibbs relation, adsorption isotherms, surface films of sparingly soluble ... More


REPRINT THE THEORY OF RUBBER ELASTICITY

R. T. Deam and S. F. Edwards

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter reprints a paper which attempts to improve upon several weaknesses in the classical theories of rubber elasticity. It develops a formulation of the statistical thermodynamics of ... More


Econophysics and Physical Economics

Peter Richmond, Jürgen Mimkes, and Stefan Hutzler

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199674701
eISBN:
9780191780066
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674701.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

An understanding of the behaviour of financial assets and the evolution of economies has never been as important as it is today. This book looks at these complex systems from the perspective of the ... More


Conceptual Schemes: The Midcentury Poetics of Muriel Rukeyser and Charles Olson

Peter Middleton

in Physics Envy: American Poetry and Science in the Cold War and After

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226290003
eISBN:
9780226290140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226290140.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

By mid-century, social scientists such as Kurt Lewin increasing believed that a better understanding of the mind and society required scientific methods, especially the use of conceptual schemes. ... More


Rumors, Religious Competition, and Community Violence: The Cane Creek Massacre

Patrick Q. Mason

in The Mormon Menace: Violence and Anti-Mormonism in the Postbellum South

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199740024
eISBN:
9780199894666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199740024.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Mormonism seemed to be exploding in rural northwestern Tennessee in the mid-1880s, thanks largely to the efforts of Elder John Gibbs. This engendered considerable resentment among many local ... More


Thermodynamic potentials

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The internal energy U of a system is a function of state, which means that a system undergoes the same change in U when we move it from one equilibrium state to another, irrespective of which route ... More


Phase transitions

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0028
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter focuses on phase transitions, discussing latent heat and deriving the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. It discusses the criteria for stability and metastability, and derives the Gibbs phase ... More


The Consequences of Extensivity

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199646944
eISBN:
9780191775123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646944.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Although extensivity is not an essential property of thermodynamic systems, it is a very useful concept for analysing the properties of materials when we can ignore surface and boundary effects. This ... More


Phase Diagrams Of Lyotropic Mixtures

Antônio M. Figueiredo Neto and Silvio R. A. Salinas

in The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525509
eISBN:
9780191711756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525509.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Phase diagrams of lyotropic mixtures, in terms of temperature and relative concentrations of the components, display a variety of stable structures and regions. This chapter begins with the use of ... More


Boltzmann, Gibbs, and equilibrium statistical mechanics

CARLO CERCIGNANI

in Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570646
eISBN:
9780191717949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570646.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter discusses equilibrium statistical mechanics for systems more complicated than monatomic gases, as well as the problem of the trend towards equilibrium of these systems. Ludwig Boltzmann ... More


Spin Chains

Robert Alicki and Mark Fannes

in Quantum Dynamical Systems

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198504009
eISBN:
9780191708503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504009.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces quantum spin chains for two different purposes: prototypes of infinite quantum systems discretized in space, and general models of stochastic processes in discrete time on a ... More


Entropy

Robert Alicki and Mark Fannes

in Quantum Dynamical Systems

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198504009
eISBN:
9780191708503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504009.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter begins with the discussion of various meanings of the entropy: Boltzmann entropy, Shannon entropy, von Neumann entropy. It then presents the basic properties of the von Neumann entropy ... More


Boltzmann and his contemporaries

CARLO CERCIGNANI

in Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570646
eISBN:
9780191717949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570646.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Some important aspects of the relations between Ludwig Boltzmann and several great scientists who were his contemporaries have already been discussed in the previous chapters. These contemporaries ... More


Fundamentals

Joel Bernstein

in Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199236565
eISBN:
9780191707940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236565.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter presents the thermodynamic fundamentals of polymorphism. The Gibbs Phase Rule is reviewed, followed by its application to polymorphic systems. The concept of energy/temperature diagrams ... More


An Objectivistaccount of Probabilities in Statistical Mechanics

D.A. Lavis

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter defends and refines a specific objectivist interpretation of probabilities in statistical mechanics. For ergodic systems, probabilities are defined as time-averages. For other systems, ... More


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