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Evolution and Revolution

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores the development of evolutionary theory. Evolutionary theory holds that the natural world is steadily changing, that organisms have slowly diverged from common ancestors, and ... More


Cuvier and the Principle of the Conditions for Existence

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on Georges Cuvier and his principle of the conditions for existence. Cuvier was in every sense a child of the Enlightenment, and brought a critical, rational attitude to the ... More


Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

John Reiss

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

More than two centuries ago, William Paley introduced his famous metaphor of the universe as a watch made by the Creator. For him, the exquisite structure of the universe necessitated a designer. ... More


The World in the Museum: Natural History and the Invention of Organisms and Environments in Post-Revolutionary Paris

Etienne S. Benson

in Surroundings: A History of Environments and Environmentalisms

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226706153
eISBN:
9780226706320
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226706320.003.0002
Subject:
History, Environmental History

This chapter focuses on research conducted at the Paris Museum of Natural History or Museum d’Histoire Naturelle in the decades following its founding in 1793. Located at a longstanding botanical ... More


Bones of Contention the American Incognitum and the Discovery of Extinction

in Nature's Ghosts: Confronting Extinction from the Age of Jefferson to the Age of Ecology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226038148
eISBN:
9780226038155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226038155.003.0002
Subject:
History, Environmental History

In addition to his considerable accomplishment in the political sphere, Thomas Jefferson was also a skilled naturalist who made early, important contributions to the field of paleontology. At the ... More


Setting the Stage

David J. Meltzer

in The Great Paleolithic War: How Science Forged an Understanding of America's Ice Age Past

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226293226
eISBN:
9780226293363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226293363.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

By the early 1800s Georges Cuvier had proven animal extinction and Louis Agassiz a onetime Ice Age, putting in place key elements for telling past time. A new dimension of archaeology opened in ... More


Cuvier's Model for Geohistory (1817–25)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter describes the work of Georges Cuvier, naturalist and professor of comparative anatomy at the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. In 1812 Cuvier produced four volumes of Researches on ... More


“The Great O. versus the Jermyn St. Pet”: Huxley, Falconer, and Owen on Paleontological Method

Gowan Dawson

in Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Community, Identity, Continuity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226109503
eISBN:
9780226109640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226109640.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the paleontological dispute from 1856 to 1857 between Thomas Henry Huxley, Hugh Falconer, and Richard Owen, and its role in forging a sense of solidarity and community amongst ... More


Settling in Paris

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall and Spurzheim arrived in Paris during October 1807, while the Napoleonic Wars were still raging and where Napoleon Bonaparte was reshaping every aspect of society. Napoleon despised foreigners ... More


Cuvier’s Law of Correlation

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This introduction explores the origins of the “show me the bone” claim in the lectures of Samuel Mitchill. It explains how the law of correlation transformed the science of paleontology, especially ... More


Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Gowan Dawson

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the nineteenth century paleontologists claimed that, from just a single bone, they could identify and sometimes even reconstruct previously unknown prehistoric creatures. Such extraordinary ... More


Monsters From Deep Time (1819–24)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the discovery of new fossil reptiles from the Lias rocks of England. These were found by fossilists such as Richard Anning, described and named by geologists such as William ... More


The Meaning of Extinction: Catastrophe, Equilibrium, and Diversity

David Sepkoski

in Catastrophic Thinking: Extinction and the Value of Diversity from Darwin to the Anthropocene

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226348612
eISBN:
9780226354613
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226354613.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter begins the story by exploring how the idea of extinction emerged as a biological concept in the nineteenth century. Despite the current ubiquity of the term, extinction challenged ... More


Blaming Aristotle

J. David Archibald

in Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164122
eISBN:
9780231537667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164122.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines how Aristotle influenced both our perceptions and misperceptions of the history of life on Earth and the presumption that humans are the highest of animals. Aristotle's views ... More


Men among the mammoths? (1825–30)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0017
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter considers the question of whether humans co-existed with the extinct “antediluvial” mammals. The discovery of human bones mixed with those of the unmistakably “antediluvial” species ... More


Philsophical Background

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter provides the necessary philosophical background by defining teleological thinking and why it is a problem, and distinguishes conditional teleological explanations, which are acceptable, ... More


The “Hottentot Apron”: Genital Aberration in the History of Sexual Science

Rebecca Hodes

in Global History of Sexual Science, 1880-1960

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780520293373
eISBN:
9780520966673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520293373.003.0006
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter examines the role played by racial scientists in the sexual scientific readings of the “Hottentot apron,” a perceived elongation of the labia associated with the Khoisan women of South ... More


The specter of transmutation (1825–29)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0018
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck's transformist theory, according to which all organic forms were and always had been in a state of continuous flux in the direction of increasing complexity and perfection, ... More


The “Normal State” in French Anatomical and Physiological Discourse of the 1820s and 1830s

Peter Cryle and Elizabeth Stephens

in Normality: A Critical Genealogy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226483863
eISBN:
9780226484198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226484198.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

The term “normal” first came into usage in French anatomy in the early 1820s. It was used to refer to organs that were fixed in their roles and highly integrated with those around them. In this ... More


The Roots of Evolutionary Thought in Argentina

in From Man to Ape: Darwinism in Argentina, 1870-1920

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226596167
eISBN:
9780226596181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226596181.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the origins of evolutionary thought in Argentina. It suggests that Georges Cuvier's work on the giant ground sloth Megatherium in 1789 helped put Pampas on the scientific map ... More


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