*Chris Heunen and Jamie Vicary*

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- January 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198739623
- eISBN:
- 9780191802584
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198739623.003.0005
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Mathematical Physics, Applied Mathematics

A Frobenius structure is a monoid together with a comonoid, which satisfies an interaction law. Frobenius structures have a powerful graphical calculus and we prove a normal form theorem that makes ...
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A Frobenius structure is a monoid together with a comonoid, which satisfies an interaction law. Frobenius structures have a powerful graphical calculus and we prove a normal form theorem that makes them easy to work with. The Frobenius law itself is justified as a coherence property between daggers and closure of a category. We prove classification theorems for dagger Frobenius structures: in Hilb in terms of operator algebras and in Rel in terms of groupoids. Of special interest is the commutative case—as for Hilbert spaces this corresponds to a choice of basis—and provides a powerful tool to model classical information. We discuss phase gates and the state transfer protocol—as well as modules for Frobenius structures—and show how we can use these to model measurement, controlled operations and quantum teleportation.Less

A Frobenius structure is a monoid together with a comonoid, which satisfies an interaction law. Frobenius structures have a powerful graphical calculus and we prove a normal form theorem that makes them easy to work with. The Frobenius law itself is justified as a coherence property between daggers and closure of a category. We prove classification theorems for dagger Frobenius structures: in **Hilb** in terms of operator algebras and in **Rel** in terms of groupoids. Of special interest is the commutative case—as for Hilbert spaces this corresponds to a choice of basis—and provides a powerful tool to model classical information. We discuss phase gates and the state transfer protocol—as well as modules for Frobenius structures—and show how we can use these to model measurement, controlled operations and quantum teleportation.

*Peter Hines*

- Published in print:
- 2013
- Published Online:
- May 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199646296
- eISBN:
- 9780191747847
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646296.003.0008
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

In this chapter, the role of types in categorical models of meaning is investigated. A general scheme for how typed models of meaning may be used to compare sentences, regardless of their grammatical ...
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In this chapter, the role of types in categorical models of meaning is investigated. A general scheme for how typed models of meaning may be used to compare sentences, regardless of their grammatical structure—based on other chapters in this book—is described, and a toy example is used as an illustration. Taking as a starting point the question of whether the evaluation of such a type system ‘loses information’, we consider the parametrized typing associated with connectives from this viewpoint. The answer to this question implies that, within full categorical models of meaning, the objects associated with types must exhibit a simple but subtle categorical property known as self-similarity. We investigate the category theory behind this, with explicit reference to typed systems, and their monoidal closed structure. We then demonstrate close connections between such self-similar structures and dagger Frobenius algebras. In particular, we demonstrate that the categorical structures implied by the polymorphically typed connectives give rise to a (lax unitless) form of the special forms of Frobenius algebras known as classical structures, used heavily in abstract categorical approaches to quantum mechanics.Less

In this chapter, the role of types in categorical models of meaning is investigated. A general scheme for how typed models of meaning may be used to compare sentences, regardless of their grammatical structure—based on other chapters in this book—is described, and a toy example is used as an illustration. Taking as a starting point the question of whether the evaluation of such a type system ‘loses information’, we consider the parametrized typing associated with connectives from this viewpoint. The answer to this question implies that, within full categorical models of meaning, the objects associated with types must exhibit a simple but subtle categorical property known as self-similarity. We investigate the category theory behind this, with explicit reference to typed systems, and their monoidal closed structure. We then demonstrate close connections between such self-similar structures and dagger Frobenius algebras. In particular, we demonstrate that the categorical structures implied by the polymorphically typed connectives give rise to a (lax unitless) form of the special forms of Frobenius algebras known as classical structures, used heavily in abstract categorical approaches to quantum mechanics.

*Chris Heunen and Jamie Vicary*

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- January 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198739623
- eISBN:
- 9780191802584
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198739623.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Mathematical Physics, Applied Mathematics

Monoidal category theory serves as a powerful framework for describing logical aspects of quantum theory, giving an abstract language for parallel and sequential composition and a conceptual way to ...
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Monoidal category theory serves as a powerful framework for describing logical aspects of quantum theory, giving an abstract language for parallel and sequential composition and a conceptual way to understand many high-level quantum phenomena. Here, we lay the foundations for this categorical quantum mechanics, with an emphasis on the graphical calculus that makes computation intuitive. We describe superposition and entanglement using biproducts and dual objects, and show how quantum teleportation can be studied abstractly using these structures. We investigate monoids, Frobenius structures and Hopf algebras, showing how they can be used to model classical information and complementary observables. We describe the CP construction, a categorical tool to describe probabilistic quantum systems. The last chapter introduces higher categories, surface diagrams and 2-Hilbert spaces, and shows how the language of duality in monoidal 2-categories can be used to reason about quantum protocols, including quantum teleportation and dense coding. Previous knowledge of linear algebra, quantum information or category theory would give an ideal background for studying this text, but it is not assumed, with essential background material given in a self-contained introductory chapter. Throughout the text, we point out links with many other areas, such as representation theory, topology, quantum algebra, knot theory and probability theory, and present nonstandard models including sets and relations. All results are stated rigorously and full proofs are given as far as possible, making this book an invaluable reference for modern techniques in quantum logic, with much of the material not available in any other textbook.Less

Monoidal category theory serves as a powerful framework for describing logical aspects of quantum theory, giving an abstract language for parallel and sequential composition and a conceptual way to understand many high-level quantum phenomena. Here, we lay the foundations for this categorical quantum mechanics, with an emphasis on the graphical calculus that makes computation intuitive. We describe superposition and entanglement using biproducts and dual objects, and show how quantum teleportation can be studied abstractly using these structures. We investigate monoids, Frobenius structures and Hopf algebras, showing how they can be used to model classical information and complementary observables. We describe the CP construction, a categorical tool to describe probabilistic quantum systems. The last chapter introduces higher categories, surface diagrams and 2-Hilbert spaces, and shows how the language of duality in monoidal 2-categories can be used to reason about quantum protocols, including quantum teleportation and dense coding. Previous knowledge of linear algebra, quantum information or category theory would give an ideal background for studying this text, but it is not assumed, with essential background material given in a self-contained introductory chapter. Throughout the text, we point out links with many other areas, such as representation theory, topology, quantum algebra, knot theory and probability theory, and present nonstandard models including sets and relations. All results are stated rigorously and full proofs are given as far as possible, making this book an invaluable reference for modern techniques in quantum logic, with much of the material not available in any other textbook.