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Rules for the Knowledge Operator

Jonathan L. Kvanvig

in The Knowability Paradox

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199282593
eISBN:
9780191603587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282595.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter examines the idea that the logical principles governing the knowledge operator are the root cause of the paradox. There are two such principles: the first is that knowledge implies ... More


Sensory Concepts

Mohan Matthen

in Seeing, Doing, and Knowing: A Philosophical Theory of Sense Perception

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199268504
eISBN:
9780191602283
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199268509.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

A number of influential positions in the philosophy of perception are grounded in the idea that the sensory image is raw and unprocessed. Dretske holds that sensation is analogue: he neglects ... More


Universals: Laws Grounded in Nature

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Universals accounts of laws of nature begin with a robust anti‐nominalism: there are real properties and relations that are to be distinguished from sets or arbitrary classifications. Those real ... More


Laws of Nature

David M. Armstrong

in Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199590612
eISBN:
9780191723391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590612.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Once one has ‘sparse’ universals it is natural to think that an account of laws of nature can be given in terms of relations between these universals. Fred Dretske, Michael Tooley, and myself all ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation: Salvation by Laws?

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Induction has given way to Infere nce to the Best Explanation (IBE) in the epistemology hospitable to realism, or to metaphysics in general. Both Dretske and Armstrong provide severe critiques of ... More


Perception, Reliability, and Other Minds

Anita Avramides

in Knowing Other Minds

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198794400
eISBN:
9780191882609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198794400.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

It has been suggested that we can come by our knowledge of what others think and feel through perception. The idea has been worked out in different ways by different philosophers. In this chapter I ... More


More and Different Information

David Hodgson

in The Mind Matters: Consciousness and Choice in a Quantum World

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198240686
eISBN:
9780191680236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198240686.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is sometimes asserted that computers with consciousness may be developed, or even that they exist now; but, whether or not this is so, it is clear that existing computers operate by performing ... More


The Puzzle of Transparency

Alex Byrne

in Transparency and Self-Knowledge

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198821618
eISBN:
9780191860898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198821618.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In The World Without, the Mind Within, André Gallois points out that the inference from ‘p’ to ‘I believe that p’ is neither deductively valid nor inductively strong. This is (a version of) the ... More


Scepticism and Externalism

Michael Ayers

in Knowing and Seeing: Groundwork for a new empiricism

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780198833567
eISBN:
9780191871993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833567.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Like Descartes, many analytic epistemologists employ sceptical argument ‘methodologically’, affording undue respect to its illusory force in order to present their own theory as the way to avoid its ... More


Ephemeral Vision

Mohan Matthen

in Perceptual Ephemera

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198722304
eISBN:
9780191789120
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198722304.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Vision is organized around material objects; they are most of what we see. But we also see beams of light, depictions, shadows, reflections, etc. These things look like material objects in many ways, ... More


Methodological Reflections on Belief

Robert Cummins

in The World in the Head

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199548033
eISBN:
9780191809835
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199548033.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter analyses intentional realism and the philosophy of science, followed by a description of belief attributions. It focuses on Fred Dretske's theory, which implies that mental states get ... More


Logical Laws

Ian Rumfitt

in The Boundary Stones of Thought: An Essay in the Philosophy of Logic

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780198733638
eISBN:
9780191798016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198733638.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter contends that there are many consequence relations—relations in which the truth of the premisses guarantees the truth of the conclusion. By considering the nature of deduction—the ... More


Powerful Properties, Powerless Laws

Heather Demarest

in Causal Powers

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780198796572
eISBN:
9780191837838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198796572.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A familiar choice-point in the laws of nature debate is whether the laws do any important metaphysical work. Some philosophers, such as Fred Dretske, Michael Tooley, David Armstrong, and Tim Maudlin, ... More


Transparent Experience and the Availability of Qualia

Brian Loar

in Consciousness and Meaning: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780199673353
eISBN:
9780191758935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199673353.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In this chapter, Loar attempts to combine the representationist insight of Harman, Dretske, and others about the transparency of normal visual experience with the qualiphile commitment to ... More


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