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Franz Joseph Gall: The Cerebral Organs of Mind

Stanley Finger

in Minds Behind the Brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195181821
eISBN:
9780199865277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181821.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

During the final decades of the 18th century, many scientists were trying to associate bodily features with personality characteristics. In particular, physiognomy, the art of judging character from ... More


Formative Years and Childhood Memories

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Franz Joseph Gall, who was born into a large family in the small German town of Tiefenbronn in 1758. Often called Joseph (not Franz) during his formative years, he enjoyed nature, especially watching ... More


Hostility in Vienna

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall remained in Vienna until 1805. He would have liked to continue working there but was prohibited from giving lectures (even in his home) by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who was guided by court ... More


An Emerging Theory

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall built a successful practice after obtaining his medical degree in 1785. He lived in a fashionable part of Vienna and in 1790 married Katharina Leisler, who he knew from Strasbourg. He published ... More


A Detour to Holland, Switzerland, and Back to Germany

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall’s scientific travels took him from the German states to the Netherlands in 1806, where his ideas were already known to many people, having been covered in periodicals and books, as well as ... More


Skull and Cast “Libraries”

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall’s skull and cast collections served as his research “library.” He had a large one in Vienna, and he built a second one starting with some of his prized earlier pieces after settling in Paris in ... More


Scientific Journey through Germany and Denmark

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Berlin was the first stop on Gall’s scientific journey, which began in March 1805, during the Napoleonic Wars that led to the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire. He arrived there with Spurzheim, a wax ... More


The Arts, and Faculties in Concert

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall was more interested in nature than the arts, but how he approached the various arts shows how he organized his thoughts and that he was also pondering how his faculties must work in harmony. He ... More


Settling in Paris

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall and Spurzheim arrived in Paris during October 1807, while the Napoleonic Wars were still raging and where Napoleon Bonaparte was reshaping every aspect of society. Napoleon despised foreigners ... More


Controversial Final Years

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall remained a controversial figure throughout his life, which ended in Paris in 1828. In his later years, he continued to fight with Georges Cuvier, who had overseen the rejection of his and ... More


A Man of Skulls, and More

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall used various methods when studying people and animals, including dissecting brains, studying individuals with brain damage and diseases, and correlating brain development with the advent of ... More


New Perspectives on Insanity and Criminality

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall was interested in seeing his new science applied to major problems facing society. Two such problems were how to deal with the insane and criminals, both of which already interested him when he ... More


A Rightful Place in History

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall’s craniology would not withstand the test of time, and how he accepted confirmatory cases and dismissed contradictory evidence would increasingly be regarded as poor science. As a consequence, ... More


“Cranioscopy” in the British Press

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

What Gall proposed in Vienna, while traveling through various German cities, and after he arrived in France in 1807 was transmitted by word of mouth and by the press to other countries. In ... More


Of Animal Heads and Animal Tales

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Animals played significant roles in Gall’s research program, in which he viewed humans as merely having more complex and better developed brains. Studying lowly animals, barnyard animals, wild ... More


The Long-Awaited Volumes

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall was already starting to write a book about organology while in Vienna. It had been approved by the censor and he had a subscription to back it. But he did not complete it there or during his ... More


Presenting Organologie

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

In his Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, Gall dispensed with his extensive neuroanatomy and focused exclusively on his organologie. He began with a discussion about the brain becoming more complex as one ... More


Between Myth and Science: Naturphilosphie and the Ends of Organology

Leif Weatherby

in Transplanting the Metaphysical Organ

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823269402
eISBN:
9780823269457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823269402.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter describes the process of scientific disciplinarization in the different uses of “organ” among the Naturphilosophen and in the works of Franz Joseph Gall. Even as functional morphology ... More


The Nature of Soul, or Is It Just Nature?

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Gall wanted to develop a science based on what could be observed and felt—one devoid of metaphysics. Unlike Descartes, whose separation of the soul and the physical body was still very influential, ... More


Spurzheim’s “Phrenology” and Gall in Britain

Stanley Finger

in Franz Joseph Gall: Naturalist of the Mind, Visionary of the Brain

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190464622
eISBN:
9780190464646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190464622.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Although the British were kept aware of Gall’s doctrine from 1800 on, their reactions to it were muted until Spurzheim left him, made his way to London in 1814, and immediately began to promote what ... More


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