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Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives

P. Kyle Stanford

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195174083
eISBN:
9780199786367
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195174089.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The incredible achievements of modern scientific theories lead most of us to embrace scientific realism: the view that our best theories offer us at least roughly accurate descriptions of otherwise ... More


Anthropometrics and the Normal in Francis Galton’s Anthropological, Statistical, and Eugenic Research, c. 1870–1910

Peter Cryle and Elizabeth Stephens

in Normality: A Critical Genealogy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226483863
eISBN:
9780226484198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226484198.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

In the final decades of the nineteenth century, the word normal did not yet have a strongly statistical meaning. It did not become fully elaborated as a statistical term until the turn of the ... More


Introduction

Christine Rosen

in Preaching Eugenics: Religious Leaders and the American Eugenics Movement

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195156799
eISBN:
9780199835218
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515679X.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This introductory chapter describes the main themes of the book, placing them within the context of the scientific and cultural milieu from which the eugenics movement and its religious supporters ... More


‘The Ablest Race’: The Ancient Greeks in Victorian Racial Theory

Debbie Challis

in Classics and Imperialism in the British Empire

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199584727
eISBN:
9780191595301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199584727.003.0005
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter considers how the idealization of the human body in Greek art, as defined by Winckelmann, fed the theory that physical beauty and racial perfection were to be found among the ancient ... More


A Eugenic Foundation

Michael Yudell and J. Craig Venter

in Race Unmasked: Biology and Race in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231168748
eISBN:
9780231537995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231168748.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This chapter discusses how eugenics provided a scientific explanation for racial differences. The idea that racial differences can be understood as genetic distinctions in appearance and complex ... More


My Life As a Machine: Francis Galton, with Some Reflections on A. R. Wallace

George Levine

in Dying to Know: Scientific Epistemology and Narrative in Victorian England

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226475363
eISBN:
9780226475387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226475387.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter examines Alfred Russel Wallace's My Life and Francis Galton's Memories of My Life. My Life has many of the qualities of Charles Darwin's autobiography. Galton's narrative represents ... More


Sympathetic Selection: Eugenics

Rob Boddice

in The Science of Sympathy: Morality, Evolution, and Victorian Civilization

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780252040580
eISBN:
9780252099021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040580.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Chapter 5 returns to the blueprint for the evolution of sympathy in Darwin’s Descent, picking up at the point where Darwin introduces a paradoxical prediction of degeneration, caused by the same ... More


Auto/biografiction: Counterfeit Lives: A Taxonomy of Displacements of Fiction towards Life‐Writing

Max Saunders

in Self Impression: Life-Writing, Autobiografiction, and the Forms of Modern Literature

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199579761
eISBN:
9780191722882
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579761.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism, 20th-century Literature and Modernism

This chapter examines the converse displacement to that considered in Chapters 3 and Chapter 4, looking instead at cases where fiction‐writers colonize the forms of life‐writing, producing a variety ... More


Evolution and Genetics: Darwin and Galton

Mervyn Susser and Zena Stein

in Eras in Epidemiology: The Evolution of Ideas

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195300666
eISBN:
9780199863754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300666.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on the historical development of the concepts of evolution and genetics. In the 19th century a number of new ideas about host factors converged. Charles Darwin, in The Origin of ... More


Creative Cultures, Nations, and Civilizations: Strategies and Results

Dean Keith Simonton

in Group Creativity: Innovation through Collaboration

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195147308
eISBN:
9780199893720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195147308.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter begins by discussing the debate between Francis Galton (1869) and Alphonse de Candolle (1873), a debate that Galton (1874) framed in terms of the classic nature-nurture issue. Although ... More


The Apple and the Tree: Galton Revisited

Michael Beenstock

in Heredity, Family, and Inequality: A Critique of Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016926
eISBN:
9780262301381
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016926.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This book examines the roles of heredity, family, and social environment in shaping outcomes among humans, including anthropometric, behavioral, psychological, and economic outcomes. Drawing on ... More


Regression to the Mean

Steven J. Osterlind

in The Error of Truth: How History and Mathematics Came Together to Form Our Character and Shape Our Worldview

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198831600
eISBN:
9780191869532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831600.003.0012
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter focuses on two events that started the transformation to a quantifying worldview for the general public: (1) developments in transportation, especially the invention of the train ... More


Specialization as Monomania

in Obsession: A History

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226137827
eISBN:
9780226137797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226137797.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter considers the connection between science, specialization, overwork, and obsession. It shows each is the other in the nineteenth century. The discussion covers obsession as modernity; ... More


The Sine Qua Non of Success

Michael E. Martinez

in Future Bright: A Transforming Vision of Human Intelligence

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199781843
eISBN:
9780190256050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199781843.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter explains why intelligence is a crucial factor in success. More specifically, it explores the role of intelligence in human effectiveness in school, in the workplace, and in everyday ... More


Introduction

James Tabery

in Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027373
eISBN:
9780262324144
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027373.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Francis Galton first envisioned a science of “nature versus nurture”—a science devoted to understanding whether nature or nurture contributes more to human traits and a science devoted to using that ... More


Human Heredity and Eugenics Make Their International Debut

in The Nazi Symbiosis: Human Genetics and Politics in the Third Reich

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226891767
eISBN:
9780226891798
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226891798.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter introduces some of the major internationally renowned human geneticists and eugenicists who laid the foundations of this new science since the turn of the twentieth century, including ... More


The Measurement of Intelligence

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on attempts to measure intelligence during the late nineteenth century. Developments in the measurement of intelligence came at a time when researchers were seeking to ... More


The Vast Range of Visual Worlds

Laura Otis

in Rethinking Thought: Inside the Minds of Creative Scientists and Artists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780190213466
eISBN:
9780190271701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190213466.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The insights of five strikingly different visually gifted thinkers shape this chapter: cell biologist Barry Shur, engineer Temple Grandin, painter Mary J. Welty, neuroscientist Hugh Wilson, and U. S. ... More


A Genealogy of Variation: The Enduring Debate on Human Differences

Banu Subramaniam (ed.)

in Ghost Stories for Darwin: The Science of Variation and the Politics of Diversity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038655
eISBN:
9780252096594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038655.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter traces the genealogy of variation, as shaped by Charles Darwin and his legacy of evolution by natural selection. It argues that tracing the history of variation through a naturecultural ... More


Crime, Genius, and Criminal Genius

James C. Oleson

in Criminal Genius: A Portrait of High-IQ Offenders

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780520282414
eISBN:
9780520958098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520282414.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter describes the idea of “genius,” which has evolved since its origins as a Roman tutelary spirit to include conceptions of eminence, creativity, and intelligence. In the Renaissance, ... More


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