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The Wilderness Years, 1878–1887

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0013
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Francesco Crispi had hoped since 1876 to unite Italy's left; his hopes now lay largely in ruins as factional rivalry had become almost endemic in parliament. The political education of Italians had ... More


The Shadow of Bismarck, 1871–1878

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0012
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Two months after Italian soldiers captured Rome, general elections were held in Italy. Francesco Crispi stood again in the college of Castelvetrano. He had also been elected in the college of ... More


Mobilizing the Nation, 1888–1889

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0016
Subject:
History, European Modern History

What chiefly endeared Francesco Crispi to Umberto were his aggressive foreign policy and his support for the army: nothing excited the Savoy kings as much as the prospect of war. The Chamber of ... More


Malta, London, and Paris

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The years in Turin were of great importance in Francesco Crispi's political development. He had arrived in Piedmont a federalist, whose main concern was still the liberation of Sicily: he saw ... More


Childhood, Youth, and Romanticism

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

For a man who came to harbour such an acute sense of the importance of history, Francesco Crispi's relative silence about his family and his early years seems, on the face of it, rather surprising. ... More


The Road to Rome, 1865–1870

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0011
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Francesco Crispi's hard-nosed realism, his passionate support for constitutionalism, and his rejection of revolution all made good political sense; and there was undoubtedly a great deal of ... More


Marseilles and Turin, 1849–1853

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

When the Bourbons defeated Sicily during the revolution of 1848-1849, Francesco Crispi set off for exile and chose to go to Marseilles, in part because he had written for a local newspaper there, La ... More


Adua

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0020
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The scramble to get hold of potentially incriminating documents from the Banca Romana had been intense. Giovanni Giolitti had been desperate to secure as much material as he could. Giolitti decided ... More


Preparing for War, 1887–1888

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0015
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Many conservatives certainly harboured worries about Francesco Crispi's democratic leanings and the possibility that his impulsiveness might embroil Italy in some risky foreign adventure; but such ... More


The Fasci and the Financial Crisis, 1894

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0019
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Francesco Crispi's wife Lina Barbagallo was devastated at his return to power. Crispi felt he had no choice because Italy was on the brink of catastrophe. His first task as prime minister was to deal ... More


The Young Conspirator

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The years from 1842 to 1845, when Francesco Crispi started practising as a lawyer in Naples, constituted a momentous period in the history of Italy. Liberalism in Naples during the early 1840s was ... More


Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Christopher Duggan

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This book is a biography of Francesco Crispi (1818-1901), one of the most important and controversial figures in modern Italian history. Crispi was among the key figures in the Italian Risorgimento, ... More


Revolution, 1848–1849

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The Palermo revolution could never have been effective had there not been an enormous groundswell of largely unorchestrated discontent that had built up over the years among broad sections of the ... More


1861–1865: ‘The monarchy unites us and a republic would divide us’

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The left was a badly disunited force in Italian politics after 1860. The issue of constitutionalism versus revolution became more complicated with the advent to power early in March of a centre-left ... More


Minister of the Interior, 1887

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0014
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Like his great role model, Otto von Bismarck, Francesco Crispi saw emotions as weapons in the statesman's armoury. Fear, anger, uncertainty, jealousy, indignation, and hatred were tools of politics, ... More


The Final Years

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0021
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The loss of Italy to Ethiopia in the Battle of Adua ended Francesco Crispi's political career. A fundamental cause of Adua — and of its perception as an irrevocable disaster — was that Italy lacked ... More


The Final Year, October 1889–January 1891

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0017
Subject:
History, European Modern History

In the autumn of 1889, Francesco Crispi was embarking on a new tack in foreign policy for Italy. After the disappointments of the summer it seemed wise to shelve the idea of war with France. Crispi ... More


From London to Quarto, 1858–1860

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Francesco Crispi returned to England on the eve of his fortieth birthday. He did not exactly like London, but some of his friends were there, including Rosalino Pilo. Pilo and Crispi were to be close ... More


1860: May—October

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The final days before Giuseppe Garibaldi's departure for Sicily were a time of feverish preparations. In Salemi, Francesco Crispi's main task was to start forming a provisional government. This ... More


The New Deputy

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Francesco Crispi resigned from Giuseppe Garibaldi's government, but the magnanimity that he was determined to show in defeat was not displayed by the moderates in victory. The hostility of the ... More


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