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The Consequences of Powerlessness

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0010
Subject:
History, African-American History

The legacy of the 1970s Northwest Florida black freedom struggle influenced area race relations into a new decade. Tensions within and between local civil rights groups, as well as local and national ... More


Racial Irritants

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0005
Subject:
History, African-American History

In the aftermath of the first EHS student boycott, Merenda Kyle, the mother of Escambia School High student Belinda Jackson, took legal action to remove Confederate imagery from the school. Their ... More


Who Shall We Incarcerate?

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

In December 1974, a county deputy named Doug Raines shot a black motorist named Wendel Blackwell in the head from a three-foot distance, killing him instantly. The incident represented the ... More


Legacy of a Struggle

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0011
Subject:
History, African-American History

In 1984, Pensacola and Escambia County implemented new election procedures for public office. Existing demographic data, however, indicates that political alterations did little to change the social ... More


Cultural Imagery, School Integration, and the Lost Cause

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

As the 1970s began, the Escambia County SCLC and Pensacola NAACP worked together against what blacks considered the most blatant reminder of white supremacy that survived the previous decade’s civil ... More


Patterns of Protest in Escambia County

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0002
Subject:
History, African-American History

The economic, demographic, political, and employment conditions that existed in Northwest Florida from Reconstruction through the 1950s provided the foundation for a unique local civil rights ... More


The Movement Evolves

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0003
Subject:
History, African-American History

The 1964 transfer of Reverend W. C. Dobbins to an Alabama church changed the nature and the focus of the continuing black freedom struggle. Reverend H. K. Matthews asserted himself as the leading ... More


Clouds of Interracial Revolution

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0009
Subject:
History, African-American History

In 1976, violence resumed at Escambia High School over the continued presence of its Confederate imagery. Student rioting captured national attention and ensured that city and county officials could ... More


Opposition Familiar and Unanticipated

J. Michael Butler

in Beyond Integration: The Black Freedom Struggle in Escambia County, Florida, 1960-1980

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781469627472
eISBN:
9781469627496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627472.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

As the felony trials of B. J. Brooks and H. K. Matthews approached, the Escambia County freedom struggle encountered obstacles from organizations both familiar and unanticipated. Sheriff Royal ... More


“A History of Hoaxes, Deception, and Deceit”

Brandon Haught

in Going Ape: Florida's Battles over Evolution in the Classroom

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780813049434
eISBN:
9780813050409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813049434.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Ethical Issues and Debates

Rev. Clarence E. Winslow tried his anti-evolution pitch again in Manatee County in 1983. A new school board member seemed receptive. This effort climaxed at a packed school board meeting where many ... More


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