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Scientific Internationalism and Scientific Nationalism

Melinda Baldwin

in Making "Nature": The History of a Scientific Journal

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226261454
eISBN:
9780226261591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226261591.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on the relationship between scientific publishing and scientific internationalism at the turn of the twentieth century. Nature’s speed of publication made the journal an ... More


Atomic Theories Before 1913

Helge Kragh

in Niels Bohr and the Quantum Atom: The Bohr Model of Atomic Structure 1913–1925

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199654987
eISBN:
9780191741692
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654987.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The chapter outlines the history of the composite atom from about 1850 to the early 1910s, including some pre-electron models of which the vortex atom hypothesis was the most developed. However, it ... More


Cambridge and the Cavendish

Roger H. Stuewer

in The Age of Innocence: Nuclear Physics between the First and Second World Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198827870
eISBN:
9780191866586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827870.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

J.J. Thomson was elected Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Cambridge in 1884, and after new degree regulations were instituted in 1895, he led the Cavendish Laboratory ... More


An Hourglass of Great Precision

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter takes a historical look at the experiments carried out by Ernest Rutherford to determine the age of the Earth. In 1903, Rutherford performed an experiment in which he separated the alpha ... More


Towards research

John Jenkin

in William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son: The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235209
eISBN:
9780191715631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235209.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

William explored teaching problems beyond the textbooks and was encouraged by AAAS meetings and the need to nominate students for the new 1851 Exhibition Research Scholarships. Lawrence began his ... More


New Theories of Nuclear Reactions

Roger H. Stuewer

in The Age of Innocence: Nuclear Physics between the First and Second World Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198827870
eISBN:
9780191866586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827870.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

Bohr, inspired by Fermi’s discovery of slow neutrons, conceived his theory of the compound nucleus by the end of 1935. He went on to speculate that if the energy of a neutron incident on a nucleus ... More


Strange Rays

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on the initiatives of various physicists and chemists to explore the strange new rays called X-rays that were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. The decade of the 1890s was a ... More


Geochronology

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter considers the progress made by scientists in their efforts to calculate the age of the Earth. To Kelvin and Ernest Rutherford, the age of the Earth and its constituent rocks and minerals ... More


Exiles and Immigrants

Roger H. Stuewer

in The Age of Innocence: Nuclear Physics between the First and Second World Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198827870
eISBN:
9780191866586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827870.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

In the fall of 1933, English physiologist A.V. Hill forcibly denounced the brutal Nazi racial policies, which the Nazi anti-Semite Johannes Stark then defended. Rutherford was drawn into the dispute ... More


Niels in Manchester

Finn Aaserud and John L. Heilbron

in Love, Literature, and the Quantum Atom: Niels Bohr’s 1913 Trilogy Revisited

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680283
eISBN:
9780191760228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680283.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

On the basis of Bohr’s continued correspondence with Margrethe Nørlund and his family in Denmark, this chapter sheds further light on Bohr’s successful stay in Manchester with Ernest Rutherford (from ... More


Bohr’s Derivation of the Rydberg Formula: Quantum Numbers and Quantum Jumps

Jim Baggott

in The Quantum Cookbook: Mathematical Recipes for the Foundations for Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198827856
eISBN:
9780191866579
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827856.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Atoms evolved from hypothetical entities into the objects of detailed laboratory study. The discovery of the negatively charged electron by Thomson in 1897 implied that atoms, indivisible for more ... More


Duck Soup

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0008
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter discusses the progress made by scientists in their efforts to calculate how old the Earth is. Ernest Rutherford's subsequent research, along with that of the other pioneers, led to a ... More


Schisms

Nasser Zakariya

in A Final Story: Science, Myth, and Beginnings

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226476124
eISBN:
9780226500737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226500737.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Helmholtz articulates a final story on the basis of the new thermodynamics, examined in relation to the change of organic forms, energy and entropy. He recasts this as a synthesis of thermodynamics ... More


Beginning Married Life in Copenhagen

Finn Aaserud and John L. Heilbron

in Love, Literature, and the Quantum Atom: Niels Bohr’s 1913 Trilogy Revisited

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680283
eISBN:
9780191760228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680283.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter documents the ways in which Margrethe Nørlund’s involvement in his scientific work was important to Bohr after they had married on 1 August 1912 and lived together in Copenhagen. This is ... More


Geologic Time: Measuring Time and the Nature of Deep Time

Elisabeth Ervin-Blankenheim

in Song of the Earth: Understanding Geology and Why It Matters

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
November 2021
ISBN:
9780197502464
eISBN:
9780197502495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197502464.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Historical Geology

Geologists first unraveled the geologic time scale by relative age-dating, discussed in the last chapter. Once geologists sorted out the order of rock units, subsequent advances in methodologies, ... More


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